Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki
Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki
This Bronze Age burial site features more than 30 granite burial cairns, providing a unique insight into the funerary practices and social and religious structures of northern Europe more than three millennia ago.
Site funéraire de l'âge du bronze de Sammallahdenmäki
La trentaine de tumulus funéraires en granit du cimetière de l'âge du bronze de Sammallahdenmäki constituent un témoignage exceptionnel des pratiques funéraires et des structures sociales et religieuses de l'Europe du Nord d'il y a plus de trois millénaires.
مقابر سمنلهدنماكي التي تعود للعصر البرونزي
تشكّل الأبنية الحجرية فوق المقابر ذات الشكل المخروطي المصنوعة من الغرانيت والتي يُقدّر عددها بحوالي ثلاثين والعائدة للعصر البرونزي نموذجاً رائعاً للممارسات الجنائزية والبنى الاجتماعية والدينية في أوروبا الشمالية منذ ما يزيد عن ثلاثة آلاف سنة.
Погребальный комплекс бронзового века Саммаллахденмяки
Погребальный комплекс бронзового века содержит более 30 гранитных надгробий-насыпей (cairns) и предоставляет уникальные свидетельства об обычаях погребения, социальных и религиозных структурах, бытовавших в Северной Европе более 3 тыс. лет назад.
Sitio funerario de la Edad del Bronce de Sammallahdenmäki
Este cementerio de la Edad del Bronce, que posee unos treinta túmulos funerarios de granito, constituye un testimonio incomparable de las prácticas fúnebres y las estructuras sociales y religiosas imperantes en el norte de Europa hace más de tres milenios.
Sammallahdenmäki, begraafplaats uit de bronstijd
Op de begraafplaats Sammallahdenmäki liggen meer dan 30 granieten graven in de vorm van steenhopen, die een uniek inzicht geven in de funeraire praktijken en sociale en religieuze structuren van Noord-Europa meer dan drie millennia geleden. De site wordt geassocieerd met rituelen ter verering van de zon. In het gebied werd veel brons gebruikt terwijl er geen koper of tin is te vinden. Deze werden verworven door middel van handel en uitwisseling. De bronstijd in Skandinavië was tussen 1.500 en 500 voor Christus.
Outstanding Universal Value
Situated on the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bronze Age Burial Site of Sammallahdenmäki forms the largest, most varied and complete burial site from the Scandinavian Bronze Age, 1500-500 B.C. The site includes 33 burial cairns within an area of 36 ha. The cairns are disposed in several distinct clusters along the crests and upper slopes of a long ridge. Out of eight excavated cairns, six can be dated to the Bronze Age and two to the Early Iron Age.
Stone burial cairns were typical for western Bronze Age culture. These cairns were usually constructed of granite boulders quarried from the cliff face below the crest of the ridge or collected from the site itself. The cairns can be classified into several different groups according to their shapes and sizes. Sammallahdenmäki also contains two unusual structures: one oval and elongated structure, which seems to have been enlarged in successive stages, and a large quadrangular cairn, known as the “Church Floor”, which is unique in Finland and extremely rare in Scandinavia. The cairns have no earth fill, and form landmarks on cliffs and gravel hillocks with an extensive view of the sea.
The cairns relate to a new religion, sun worship, which spread to the coastal regions of Finland from Scandinavia, and they have been a manifestation of kin group landownership, which is thought to have appeared with the introduction of farming.
Situated in a rugged, rocky landscape, the cairns bear exceptional witness to the social and religious structures of northern Europe, dating back to more than three millennia. The ancient coastline is still present on the cliffs of Sammallahdenmäki.
Criterion (iii): The Sammallahdenmäki cairn cemetery bears exceptional witness to the society of the Bronze Age of Scandinavia.
Criterion (iv): The Sammallahdenmäki cemetery is an outstanding example of Bronze Age funerary practices in Scandinavia.
The Sammallahdenmäki Bronze Age Burial Site includes all elements and individual structures of cairns in an imposing natural setting, on a high ridge marking the former extent of Lake Saarnijärvi, surrounded by pine and spruce trees, and an agricultural landscape. The completeness of the site makes it an invaluable resource for research on the social behavior of societies of the time. Its remote location has protected it from development and the local population has taken pride in its protection.
The buffer zone includes the surrounding forests and agricultural landscape; to the west, it borders on Lake Saarnijärvi, which is defined as a protected bird sanctuary of national significance.
In terms of form and material, the cairns fully express the essence of the burial site of Sammallahdenmäki, as do the setting and the surrounding natural landscape.
The excavations of the cairns have been carried out in different stages, always taking into consideration scientific methods for research, mapping and documentation, to ensure careful restoration of the cairns.
Protection and management requirements
Sammallahdenmäki is fully protected under the national legislation. The site is managed by a Site Management Board, headed by the National Board of Antiquities, and involves representatives of the regional and local authorities, landowners and various stakeholders. The management and actions taken within the site and its buffer zone are in accordance with the Management Plan. Tourists are guided by signage to use the path network, which has been designed to include routes of different lengths, thus minimizing the threat to the vegetation of the site. Large numbers of tourists can cause long-term damage to the vegetation, which in turn might have a negative impact of the visual aspects of the site. The use of the path network is monitored and documented, which will allow for a timely reaction in case of deterioration.
The Sammallahdenmäki cairn cemetery bears exceptional witness to the society, and especially the funerary practices, of the Bronze Age of Scandinavia. The Scandinavian Bronze Age culture, 1500-500 BC, included the coastal zone of continental Finland and the land archipelago. Bronze is extensively represented in its material culture, although neither copper nor tin is to be found in the area, the metals being largely acquired through trade and exchange. The value of the objects is enhanced by their association with burials and religious sites, such as cairns and other types of grave.
Stone burial cairns constructed of boulders, without earth fill, over cists of stone or wood, were erected on cliffs with a view on the sea all along the coast of Finland; more than 3,000 have been identified. They contained both cremation and inhumation burials of members of the community with all the associated funerary objects (grave goods).
The site is associated with Sun worship rituals, a cult that spread from Scandinavia over the entire region. It is also a manifestation of land ownership by kinship groups, a practice introduced with agriculture. At the time the hill of Sammallahdenmäki was completely bare of trees and was probably chosen for its unimpeded view of the sea and its openness to the Sun in all directions. The settlement of the people buried here has not yet been identified.
The Sammallahdenmäki cemetery includes 33 burial cairns and is the largest and best cairn site in all Finland; of the cairns, 28 can be securely dated to the early Bronze Age. They lie along the crest and upper slopes of a 700 m long ridge, and are disposed in several distinct clusters. The structures were built using granite boulders that were quarried from the cliff face below the crest of the ridge or collected from the site itself. Some are also built from drystone masonry. They can be classified into several different groups according to their shapes and sizes: small low round cairns, large mound-like cairns, and round walled cairns. They enclose cists made from stone slabs.
The site also contains two unusual structures. One is oval and elongated and seems to have been enlarged in three successive stages. It contains only charcoal, no bones of any sort having ever been found. The other is a large quadrangular cairn, known as the Church Floor (Kirkonlaatia ), which is unique in Finland and extremely rare in Scandinavia. Its surface is flat, it has no outer wall, and the layers of stones are thinner towards the centre. Excavations revealed an internal structure in the centre made from stone flags. It is still difficult to determine whether this structure is linked with religious ceremonies or whether it is a tomb. None of the Sammallahdenmäki cairns have produced any bronze implements. Their layout and location indicates that these cairns most probably belong to the early Bronze Age.
The degree of authenticity of the site is very high. The cairns are built from granite, which does not erode easily. The surroundings have remained untouched and the cairns themselves have been subject to very little disturbance. The remote location of the site has protected it from development, and the local population has taken pride in protecting it.Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
The Scandinavian Bronze Age culture, from 1500 BC to 500 BC, included the coastal zone of continental Finland and the land archipelago. Bronze is extensively represented in its material culture, although neither copper nor tin is to be found in the area, the metals being largely acquired through trade and exchange. The value of the objects is enhanced by their association with burials and religious sites, such as cairns and other types of grave.
Stone burial cairns constructed of boulders, without earth fill, over cists of stone or wood, were erected on cliffs with a view on the sea all along the coast of Finland; more than 3000 have been identified. They contained both cremation and inhumation burials of members of the community with all the associated funerary objects (grave goods).
The site of Sammallahdenmäki is associated with sun worship rituals, a cult which spread from Scandinavia over the entire region. It is also a manifestation of land ownership by kinship groups, a practice introduced with agriculture. At the time the hill of Sammallahdenmäki was completely bare of trees and was probably chosen for its unimpeded view of the sea and its openness to the sun in all directions.
Four cairns were excavated in 1891, leading to a better understanding of their contents and of their use. The number of known cairns is greater than the number of known settlements from this period. Thus, the spread of human population can be better observed through the distribution of graves. Many cairns are directly associated with settlements, most probably those of their builders, but the settlement of the people buried at Sammallahdenmäki has not yet been identifiedSource: Advisory Body Evaluation
- World Heritage Committee Inscribes 48 New Sites on Heritage List Wednesday, December 1, 1999