English Français
Help preserve sites now!

Engelsberg Ironworks

Engelsberg Ironworks

Sweden's production of superior grades of iron made it a leader in this field in the 17th and 18th centuries. This site is the best-preserved and most complete example of this type of Swedish ironworks.

Forges d'Engelsberg

Ce site est l'exemple le plus complet et le mieux préservé des fonderies suédoises dont la production de fer de haute qualité assura à la Suède la première place dans ce secteur aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles.

مسابك انغلسبورغ

يجسّد هذا الموقع النموذج الأكمل والأسلم حالاً للمسابك السويدية التي وضعت البلاد بفضل انتاجها العالي الجودة في المرتبة الاولى في هذا القطاع على مدى القرنين السابع عشر والثامن عشر.

source: UNESCO/ERI

恩格尔斯堡铁矿工场

17世纪和18世纪时期,瑞典生产的铁是一流产品,在全世界同行业中处于领先位置。恩格尔斯堡铁矿工场是瑞典铁矿工场保存最好最完整的范例。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Железоделательный завод Энгельсберг

Производство в Швеции высококачественного железа сделало ее лидером в данной области в XVII-XVIII вв. Завод Энгельсберг является наиболее целостным и хорошо сохранившимся образцом железоделательных производств в Швеции.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Forjas de Engelsberg

Engelsberg es el sitio mejor conservado y el ejemplo más completo de las fundiciones de hierro de alta calidad que le valieron a Suecia el primer puesto en este sector de producción en los siglos XVII y XVIII.

source: UNESCO/ERI

エンゲルスベリの製鉄所

source: NFUAJ

Hoogovens van Engelsberg

Zweden was in de 17e en 18e eeuw economisch leider op het gebied van ijzerproductie vanwege hun superieure ijzerkwaliteit. De hoogovens van Engelsberg zijn het beste voorbeeld van een Zweedse fabriek die superieur ijzer produceerde via primitieve smeltovens. In de 13e eeuw begonnen lokale boeren met erts winnen en smelten. De introductie van het waterwiel als ovenaandrijving leidde tot de snelle ontwikkeling van de ijzerindustrie. De eerste ijzersmederij in Engelsberg ging eind 16e eeuw in bedrijf. Er zijn meer dan 50 gebouwen bewaard gebleven. Hieronder vallen de technische installaties, maar ook administratieve en residentiële gebouwen voor leidinggevenden en werknemers, waaronder die van de bijbehorende boerderij.

Source: unesco.nl

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch
Engelsberg Ironworks © Jürgen Howaldt
Long Description

Engelsberg is an outstanding example of an influential European industrial complex of the 17th-19th centuries, with important technological remains and the associated administrative and residential buildings intact. It is the best preserved and most complete example of a Swedish iron-working estate, of the type which produced the superior grades of iron, using primitive smelting furnaces, that made Sweden the economic leader in this field for two centuries, from at least the end of the Migration Period.

The local peasants began mining ore and smelting in the 13th century, to supplement their agricultural activities. The introduction of the water-wheel to supply power for operating furnace and hammer bellows led to the rapid development of the Swedish iron industry in the later Middle Ages. The first bar-iron forge was operating at Engelsberg in the closing years of the 16th century, and by the mid-17th century the scale of operations there was substantial.

The policy of the Swedish Government of the time was to restrict pig-iron production to the peasants and to site forges outside the mining districts, leading to the establishment of estates with iron works attached by noblemen or burghers, who were economically better able to develop high-output units. This was the case at Engelsberg, where a nobleman built a blast furnace in 1681, for producing both pig and bar iron. Production steadily increased during the 18th century as a result of improving the technology and acquiring neighbouring forges: between 1695 and 1767 it rose from 135 to 264 tons per year. In 1778-9 a new blast furnace was built, incorporating recent technological innovations, together with an ore crusher and large charcoal store. The introduction of a new blowing engine in 1836 resulted in a significant increase in production. A gas-fired one-roasting kiln was added in 1848. The forge, which was rebuilt in the later 18th century, was re-equipped with French hearths in the 1850s.

The decline of charcoal iron production began with the introduction of the Bessemer and open-hearth bulk steelmaking processes into Sweden in the 1860s. Engelsberg was only able to survive by increasing the size of its smelting furnaces and lengthening their operating periods in the 1880s. By this time the Engelsbergs bruk was owned by the Fagersta Company, which found the older works increasingly uneconomical and closed it down in 1919.

Engelsberg is the most complete surviving example of the traditional järnbruk upon which much of Sweden's prosperity was based in the 17th and 18th centuries. These self-contained estates comprised not only technical installations but also a range of administrative and residential buildings for management and workers, including those who worked on the associated farm.

Over 50 buildings of various ages and functions have been preserved with in the complex. The main building, erected around 1750, is a two-storey modern house with weather-boarded walls and a black tin-plated roof. Some of the room are decorated with paintings in the Gustavian style (akin to English Georgian), with views of the manor itself, its furnace, and forge. The last modernization dates from 1828, when the manor changed hands again. New windows and a porch were added, together with a clock tower on the courtyard facade. The buildings has wings, that on the east containing the kitchen. There is a round pavilion, built from slag-stone, in front of each wing: the interior of that on the west is elegantly decorated. Other buildings around the manor house include the master gardener's house (1790), the brewery (1829), and a monumental slagstone barn (1872).

Other noteworthy buildings at Engelsberg include the inspector's house, a modern storehouse, the office building (brought from Dalecarlia in 1917-18), stables, a coach-house, and smiths' cottages. The smelting house of 1778-79, together with associated installations from later periods, survives intact, as do the forge of the 1850s and the ore-roasting kiln of the 1800s. Together they provide a very complete picture of the technological equipment of a traditional Swedish järnbruk .

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Iron was produced in this region from at least the end of the Migration Period, using primitive smelting furnaces. The local peasants began mining ore and smelting in the 13th century, to supplement their agricultural activities. The introduction of the water-wheel to supply power for furnace bellows and hammers led to the rapid development of the Swedish iron industry in the later Middle Ages. The first bar-iron forge was operating at: Engelsberg in the closin9 years of the 16th century, and by the mid-17th century the scale of operations there was substantial.

The policy of the Swedish Government of the time was to re\strict pig-iron production to the peasants and to site forges outside the mining districts, leading to the establishment of estates with iron works attached (jarnbruk) by noblemen or burghers, who were economically better able to develop high output units.

This was the case at Engelsberg, where a nobleman built a blast furnace in 1681, for producing both pig and bar iron. Production steadily increased during the 18th century as a result of improving the technology and acquiring neighbouring forges: between 1695 and 1767 it rose from 135 to 264 tons per year. In 1778-9 a new blast furnace was built, incorporating recent technological innovations, together with an ore crusher and large charcoal store. The introduction of a new blowing engine in 1836 resulted in a significant increase in production. A gas-fired ore-roasting kiln was added in 1848. The forge, which was rebuilt in the later 18th century, was re-equipped with French hearths in the 1850s.

The decline of charcoal iron production began with the introduction of the Bessemer and open-hearth bulk steel-making processes into Sweden in the 1860s. Engelsberg was only able to survive by increasing the size of its smelting furnaces and lengthening their operating periods in the 1880s. By this time the Engelsbergs bruk was owned by the Fagersta Company, which found the older works increasingly uneconomical and closed it down in 1919.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation