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Monticello and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville

Monticello and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville

Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), author of the American Declaration of Independence and third president of the United States, was also a talented architect of neoclassical buildings. He designed Monticello (1769–1809), his plantation home, and his ideal 'academical village' (1817–26), which is still the heart of the University of Virginia. Jefferson's use of an architectural vocabulary based upon classical antiquity symbolizes both the aspirations of the new American republic as the inheritor of European tradition and the cultural experimentation that could be expected as the country matured.

Monticello et Université de Virginie à Charlottesville

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), auteur de la Déclaration d'indépendance américaine et troisième président des États-Unis, était aussi un architecte de talent, auteur de bâtiments néoclassiques. Il a conçu Monticello (1769-1809), la résidence de sa plantation, ainsi que son « village académique » idéal (1817-1826), qui constitue toujours le cœur de l'université de Virginie. L'utilisation par Jefferson d'un vocabulaire architectural inspiré des antiquités classiques symbolise à la fois les aspirations de la nouvelle république américaine en tant qu'héritière des traditions européennes et l'expérimentation culturelle à laquelle on pouvait s'attendre à mesure que le pays parvenait à sa maturité.

مونتيشيلو وجامعة فيرجينيا في شارلوتفيل

كان توماس جيفرسون (1743-1826) كاتب إعلان الاستقلال الأمريكي ورئيس الولايات المتحدة الثالث ولكنّه كان أيضاً مهندساً مبدعاً أخرج العديد من المباني الكلاسيكيّة الجديدة. فلقد صمم مونتيشيلو (1769-1809)، موئله الطبيعي كما القرية الأكاديميّة المثاليّة (1817-1826) التي تشكّل اليوم قلب جامعة فيرجينيا. وفي استخدام جيفرسون لغةً هندسيّةً مستوحاة من العصور الغابرة الكلاسيكيّة خير رمز على طموح الجمهوريّة الأمريكيّة الجديدة كوريثةٍ للتقاليد الأوروبيّة والتجربة الثقافية المتوقعة سيّما مع سير البلاد في اتجاه سنّ البلوغ.

source: UNESCO/ERI

夏洛茨维尔的蒙蒂塞洛和弗吉尼亚大学

托马斯·杰佛逊(1743-1826年)是美国《独立宣言》的起草者,也是美国第三任总统,同时,他还是一位天才的新古典主义建筑设计师。1769年至1809年间,他亲自设计建造了自己的庄园——蒙蒂塞洛,在1817年至1826年间又设计建造了他的理想“学术村”,那里至今仍然是弗吉尼亚大学的中心。杰佛逊的设计在古典建筑基础上添加了许多新元素,这也代表了当时美国想要作为欧洲传统继承者的同时成为一个能够对文化进行再创新的成熟国家的渴望。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Усадьба Монтичелло и университет штата Виргиния в городе Шарлотсвилл

Томас Джефферсон (1743-1826 гг.), автор Американской Декларации Независимости и третий президент США, был также талантливым архитектором зданий классицизма. Он спроектировал Монтичелло (1769-1809 гг.), дом на своей плантации, и свою идеальную «академическую деревню» (1817-1826 гг.), которая до сих пор является сердцевиной университета штата Виргиния. Использование Джефферсоном языка архитектуры, основанного на античной классике, свидетельствует о том, что новая республика в Америке воспринимала себя в качестве наследника европейской традиции. Это также символизировало достижение страной зрелости, позволяющей ей эксперименты в области культуры.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Monticello y la Universidad de Virginia en Charlottesville

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), autor de la Declaración de Independencia y tercer presidente de los Estados Unidos de América, fue también un arquitecto neoclásico de talento. Diseñó Monticello (1769-1809), la mansión de su plantación, y la “aldea académica” ideal (1817-1826), que es todavía hoy el centro de la Universidad de Virginia. Su visión de la arquitectura, basada en la antigüedad clásica, refleja no sólo las aspiraciones a una nueva república americana heredera de la tradición europea, sino también el grado de experimentación cultural que podía esperarse del país en un momento en que este llegaba a su madurez.

source: UNESCO/ERI

シャーロットヴィルのモンティセロとヴァージニア大学

source: NFUAJ

Monticello en de Universiteit van Virginia in Charlottesville

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) schreef de Amerikaanse Onafhankelijkheidsverklaring en was de derde president van de Verenigde Staten. Daarnaast was hij een getalenteerde architect van neoklassieke gebouwen. Hij ontwierp tussen 1769 en 1809 zijn plantagehuis Monticello en van 1817 tot 1826 zijn ideale ‘academische dorp’ dat nog steeds het hart van de Universiteit van Virginia is. Jefferson baseerde zijn werk op de architectuur van de klassieke oudheid. Hiermee liet hij zien dat hij verwachtingen had ten aanzien van de nieuwe Amerikaanse republiek als erfgenaam van de Europese traditie, maar ook rekende op culturele experimenten die zouden ontstaan tijdens het volwassen worden van de natie.

Source: unesco.nl

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Monticello and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville (United States of America) © UNESCO
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Monticello was the plantation home of Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826), author of the American Declaration of Independence and third President of the United States. He designed both the plantation home (1769–1809) and his ideal Academical Village (1817–28) situated eight km away in Charlottesville, in central Virginia. The Academical Village still forms the heart of the University of Virginia, and exhibits a unique U-shaped plan dominated by the Rotunda with pavilions, hotels, student rooms, and gardens arrayed in rows to its south. The buildings are excellent and highly personalized examples of Neoclassicism, shown in their relationship to the natural setting and their blending of functionalism and symbolism. They were inspired by deep study of classical and contemporary examples and reflect Jefferson’s aspirations for the character of the new American republic. Both works have drawn international attention from the time of their construction.

Jefferson’s Monticello and his Academical Village precinct are notable for the originality of their plans and designs and for the refinement of their proportions and décor. His house at Monticello, with its dome, porticos supported by Doric columns, and cornices and friezes derived from classical Roman buildings, and his Academical Village, with its Rotunda modeled on the Pantheon and its ten pavilions each offering a different lesson in the classical orders and architecture as drawn from published classical models, together invoke the ideals of ancient Rome regarding freedom, nobility, self-determination, and prosperity linked to education and agricultural values. 

Criterion (i): Both Monticello and the University of Virginia reflect Jefferson’s wide reading of classical and later works on architecture and design and also his careful study of the architecture of late 18th-century Europe. As such they illustrate his wide diversity of interests.

Criterion (iv): With these buildings Thomas Jefferson made a significant contribution to Neoclassicism, the 18th-century movement that adapted the forms and details of classical architecture to contemporary buildings.

Criterion (vi): Monticello and the key buildings of the University of Virginia are directly and materially associated with the ideas and ideals of Thomas Jefferson. Both the University buildings and Monticello were directly inspired by principles derived from his deep knowledge of classical architecture and philosophy. 

Integrity

Within the boundaries of Monticello and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville are located all the elements necessary to understand and express the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, including, at Monticello, both the house and the core area of the estate, which preserves the house’s setting in the scenic Southwest Mountains in the Virginia Piedmont; and, at the University of Virginia, all the key buildings of Jefferson’s Academical Village and its associated landscape features. The property is thus of sufficient size to adequately ensure the complete representation of the features and processes that convey the property’s significance. There is no buffer zone for the property.

The house at Monticello is intact and unchanged beyond some mid 20th-century physical repairs, which include the insertion of steel beams to support the floors and the addition of temperature and humidity controls. Land has been acquired, much of it placed in conservation easement, to secure views from the mountaintop. The University of Virginia continues to raise its standards for the stewardship of the Jeffersonian precinct and has instituted systematic actions to curate and maintain the buildings. The overall integrity of the many components is remarkably good, considering their constant use. The property does not suffer from adverse effects of development and/or neglect. 

Authenticity

“Monticello and the University of Virginia in Charlottesville” is substantially authentic in terms of its forms and designs, materials and substance, and locations and settings, as well as, for the University’s Academical Village, its uses and functions. The property owned by the Thomas Jefferson Foundation at Monticello is largely part of the original tract of land owned by Jefferson. Monticello was never greatly altered after his death. Additionally, the Foundation has undertaken archaeological investigations to determine the locations of roads, gardens and other landscape features.

The Jeffersonian precinct of the University has been in continuous use for its original purposes since its construction. Only the Rotunda has been much changed: a serious fire that nearly destroyed the building in 1895 was followed by a restoration and reconfiguration designed by architect Stanford White with the full understanding of the sources of Jefferson’s inspiration. A Jeffersonian interior was recreated in the Rotunda in the 1970s. Extensions have been made to the rear of most of the pavilions, and the gardens behind them were redesigned in the mid 20th century in a Colonial Revival style based on early 19th-century garden layouts and heirloom plants.

The greatest threats to the property are commercial development in Monticello’s extensive view shed and, for the Academical Village, relative humidity, pollution and invasive species. The Thomas Jefferson Foundation is addressing development issues, and the University is addressing continuing humidity issues, has installed scrubbers on its coal power plant to reduce emissions, and is inoculating trees against the Emerald Ash Borer. 

Protection and management requirements

Monticello is owned and administered by the Thomas Jefferson Foundation, Inc., a private, non-profit organization. Jefferson’s Academical Village precinct, administered as part of the University of Virginia, is owned by the Commonwealth of Virginia. Monticello and the University of Virginia Historic District (which includes the Academical Village and the University’s Rotunda) were designated by the Secretary of the Interior as National Historic Landmarks in 1960 and 1971, respectively. The Rotunda was also individually designated in 1965.

The Thomas Jefferson Foundation’s express purpose is to preserve and maintain Monticello as a national memorial, and it has a staff of professionals to support this work. A detailed strategic plan (2012), including a tourism plan, is supplemented by a Historic Structures Report (1991) and a restoration master plan (1996). The Foundation also has a strong working relationship with the local governing bodies. A visitor center provides services and interpretation as well as ticketing and visitor amenities. The University of Virginia, an agency of the Commonwealth of Virginia, is advised by the Virginia Department of Historic Resources, which under State law reviews all major changes to the Academical Village, as does the Virginia Art and Architecture Review Board. The University employs a multi-disciplinary team of preservation professionals and tradespersons to plan, manage, and execute work on the buildings and landscape in the historic precinct. The Historic Preservation Advisory Committee includes preservation professionals and University of Virginia faculty members, and advises the Architect for the University on proposed projects. A Historic Structure Report exists for the Academical Village and others have been commissioned for nine of the individual buildings within the precinct. Part I of a Cultural Landscape Report for the precinct has also been completed. Archaeological investigations precede any significant subsurface disturbance related to either building or landscape projects. The University adopted in 2011 a “Planning Framework and Design Guidelines for the Academical Village”. The “University of Virginia Historic Preservation Framework Plan” (2007) provides also guidance for post-Jefferson structures in the precinct. The Academical Village precinct does not yet have a formal management plan, nor does the World Heritage property as a whole. There is nevertheless a strong cooperative and collaborative relationship between Monticello and the University of Virginia. Sustaining the Outstanding Universal Value of the property over time will require an integrated planning approach thereby ensuring that the authenticity and integrity of the property are not compromised by identified or potential threats, including development and environmental factors.