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Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture

Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture

Ibiza provides an excellent example of the interaction between the marine and coastal ecosystems. The dense prairies of oceanic Posidonia (seagrass), an important endemic species found only in the Mediterranean basin, contain and support a diversity of marine life. Ibiza preserves considerable evidence of its long history. The archaeological sites at Sa Caleta (settlement) and Puig des Molins (necropolis) testify to the important role played by the island in the Mediterranean economy in protohistory, particularly during the Phoenician-Carthaginian period. The fortified Upper Town (Alta Vila) is an outstanding example of Renaissance military architecture; it had a profound influence on the development of fortifications in the Spanish settlements of the New World.

Ibiza, biodiversité et culture

Ibiza offre un excellent exemple d'interaction entre les écosystèmes marins et côtiers. Les prairies denses de posidonies (herbe des fonds marins), espèce endémique que l'on trouve uniquement dans le bassin méditerranéen, contiennent et entretiennent une vie marine diverse. Ibiza conserve des témoignages considérables de sa longue histoire. Les sites archéologiques de Sa Caleta (habitat) et de Puig des Molins (nécropole) témoignent de l'importance du rôle joué par l'île dans l'économie méditerranéenne de la protohistoire et, tout particulièrement, au cours de la période phénicienne-carthaginoise. La ville haute fortifiée (Alta Vila) est un exemple exceptionnel d'architecture militaire de la Renaissance. Elle a eu une profonde influence sur le développement des fortifications dans les établissements espagnols du Nouveau Monde.

إيبيزا، تنوّع بيولوجي وثقافة

تشكّل إيبيزا خير مثال عن التفاعل بين النظم البيئيّة البحريّة الشاطئيّة. وتحتوي مروج عشبة البحر وهي صنف مستوطن متوفّر فقط في حوض البحر الأبيض المتوسّط، على حياة بحريّة متنوّعة. تحافظ إيبيزا على قرائن حيّة لتاريخها الطويل. وتشهد مواقع مسكن سا كاليتا الأثريّة وبيغ ديس مولين وهي مدينة الموتى على الدور العظيم الذي أدّته الجزيرة في الاقتصاد المتوسطي لتاريخ نشوء البشريّة وخصوصاً في خلال الفترة الممتدة بين الحقبة الفينيقيّة والقرطاجيّة. وتشكّل المدينة المحصّنة العالية (ألتا فيلا) مثالاً استثنائياً عن الهندسة العسكريّة في حقبة النهضة. ولقد أحدثت تأثيراً بالغاً في تطوّر الحصون ومؤسسات العالم الحديث الإسبانيّة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

伊维萨岛的生物多样性和特有文化

伊维萨岛的生物多样性和特有文化提供了一个海洋生态系统和沿海生态系统之间相互作用的极好范例。伊维萨岛边地中海盆地所特有的波西多尼亚海草生长茂盛,蕴含和支撑着海洋生物的多样性。另外,伊维萨岛的历史遗迹保存完好。萨·卡莱塔聚居地考古遗址和普伊格·德斯·墨林斯墓地遗址证实了一点:在史前,特别是腓尼基-迦太基时期,伊维萨岛对于地中海经济发展起到了非常重要的作用。坚固的高城要塞是文艺复兴时期军事建筑的杰出范例,对于西班牙殖民者在新大陆的防御性建筑发展具有极其深远的影响。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Остров Ибиса: биоразнообразие и культура (Балеарские острова)

Ибиса (Ивиса, Ибица) дает прекрасный пример взаимодействия между морскими и береговыми экосистемами. Густые заросли посидонии (океанической водоросли), одного из главных эндемиков Средиземного моря, – важное условие поддержания видового многообразия морских организмов в прибрежной зоне. Ибиса хранит свидетельства своей богатой истории. Археологические раскопки в районе поселения Са-Калета и в некрополе Пуйг-дес-Молинс подтверждают, что остров играл большую роль в экономическом развитии Средиземноморья даже в доисторическую эпоху, особенно во времена Финикии и Карфагена. Укрепленный Верхний город (Альта-Вила) – выдающийся пример военной архитектуры эпохи Возрождения, оказавший большое влияние на сооружение испанских укрепленных поселений в Новом Свете.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ibiza, biodiversidad y cultura

Esta isla ofrece un excelente ejemplo de la interacción entre los ecosistemas marinos y costeros. Sus tupidas praderas de posidonias –planta de los fondos marinos endémica de la cuenca mediterránea– ofrecen refugio y alimentación a muy diversas especies marinas. Además, Ibiza conserva vestigios considerables de su larga historia. Los sitios arqueológicos del asentamiento humano de Sa Caleta y de la necrópolis del Puig des Molins atestiguan el importante papel desempeñado por la isla en la economía del mediterránea de la Protohistoria, y más concretamente del periodo fenicio-cartaginés. La Alta Vila, extraordinaria muestra de la arquitectura militar renacentista, ejerció una gran influencia en la concepción de las fortificaciones de los asentamientos españoles en el Nuevo Mundo.

source: UNESCO/ERI

イビサ、生物多様性と文化

source: NFUAJ

Ibiza, biodiversiteit en cultuur

Ibiza is een goed voorbeeld van de interactie tussen de ecosystemen van de zee en de kust. De dichte prairies van Posidonia Oceanica, een inheemse zeegrassoort die alleen in het Middellandse Zee-gebied voorkomt – ondersteunen de diversiteit van het zeeleven. De archeologische plekken Sa Caleta en Puig des Molins laten zien dat het eiland een belangrijke rol speelde in de vroege geschiedenis van de mediterrane economie. De versterkte bovenstad (Alta Vila) is een mooi voorbeeld van militaire architectuur in Renaissancestijl. De stad heeft grote invloed uitgeoefend op de ontwikkeling van vestingwerken in de Spaanse nederzettingen van de Nieuwe Wereld.

Source: unesco.nl

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Ibiza, Biodiversity and Culture © Ivo Schwalbe
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (ix): The evolution of Ibiza's shoreline is one of the best examples of the influence of Posidonia on the interaction of coastal and marine ecosystems.

Criterion (x): The well-preserved Posidonia , threatened in most Mediterranean locations, contains and supports a diversity of marine life.

Criterion (ii): The intact 16th century fortifications of Ibiza bear unique witness to the military architecture and engineering and the aesthetics of the Renaissance. This Italian-Spanish model was very influential, especially in the construction and fortification of towns in the New World.

Criterion (iii): The Phoenician ruins of Sa Caleta and the Phoenician-Punic cemetery of Puig des Molins are exceptional evidence of urbanization and social life in the Phoenician colonies of the western Mediterranean. They constitute a unique resource, in terms of volume and importance, of material from the Phoenician and Carthaginian tombs.

Criterion (iv): The Upper Town of Ibiza is an excellent example of a fortified acropolis which preserves in an exceptional way in its walls and in its urban fabric successive imprints of the earliest Phoenicians settlements and the Arab and Catalan periods through to the Renaissance bastions. The long process of building the defensive walls has not destroyed the earlier phases or the street pattern, but has incorporated them in the ultimate phase.

Long Description

The Upper Town of Ibiza is an excellent example of a fortified acropolis which preserves in an exceptional way in its walls and in its urban fabric successive imprints of the earliest Phoenicians settlements and the Arab and Catalan periods through to the Renaissance bastions. The long process of building the defensive walls has not destroyed the street pattern, but has incorporated them in the ultimate phase.The intact 16th-century fortifications of Ibiza bear unique witness to the military architecture and engineering and the aesthetics of the Renaissance. This Italian-Spanish model was very influential, especially in the construction and fortification of towns in the New World. The evolution of Ibiza's shoreline is one of the best examples of the influence of Posidonia on the interaction of coastal and marine ecosystems.

The Upper Town is the oldest area, which emerges like an acropolis standing on a headland facing the sea. Its architecture and physiognomy have not been changed since the fortifications were built in the 16th century, based on the military precepts of the Renaissance. The defensive walls and bastions have incorporated those which existed before, thus making it possible to study the stratigraphy of all fortifications.

Ebysos (the town of Bes, an Egyptian god) was founded by the Carthaginians in 654 BC. For 2,000 years, the town and its fortified harbour were the centre of Mediterranean navigation.

The local economy was based on the collection of salt from the pans, wool, and figs. After a period of alliance with Rome, the island came under the control of the Arabs in AD 902. Excavations have revealed the ruins of a strong earthen wall, as well as the urban plan of the medina, which consists of narrow streets lined by dwelling houses with windows looking over an inner courtyard, and surrounded by walls on three sides. In 1235, the town was dominated by Christians, who built the Catalan castle, visible from the inside of the present building, the medieval fortifications, and the Gothic cathedral. From 1530 to 1540, Philip II drew up a strategic plan to defend communications between Spain and Italy. In 1584-85, new fortifications were erected with the help of specialized Italian architects: Giovanni Battista Calvi and Jacobo Paleazzo Fratin.

The Phoenician-Punic cemetery of Puig des Molins (in use until the end of the Roman period) is situated in the south-west of the Upper Town. At the beginning of the 6th century BC, the ashes of the dead were placed in a natural grotto after cremation. Later, shafts and funerary chambers were dug. Monolithic sarcophagi were lowered through shafts into hypogea (family sepulchres). It is the oldest to have been preserved, thus making it possible to study a wide variety of tombs, statues, and cult objects. It has been included in the urban perimeter and has added to the beauty of the site, with its terraces planted with olive trees to take advantage of the humidity of the underground chambers. The Phoenician-Punic Archaeological Site of Sa Caleta is near the salt-pans, and was abandoned around 590 BC in favour of the site of Ibiza, before it was eroded by the sea. Excavations have unearthed walls. Scattered square-shaped buildings were linked by an irregular system of streets and triangular public areas, revealing an archaic form of urbanization, inhabited by a community of about 800 people, which had an egalitarian social structure, and an economy based on agriculture, metallurgy, salt and fishing.

There are also properties located in the buffer zone: Punic water tanks, tombs that extend the cemetery of Puig des Molins, as well as an old Muslim cemetery and the ruins of a Christian chapel. Also there is Ses Feixes, an area stretches along the coast, situated on the other side of the harbour, opposite the Upper Town. It displays a form of cultivation based on an ingenious irrigation system: the fields are divided into long, narrow rectangles by a network of canals which have the dual function of collecting water and irrigating the fields. This system permits an intensive but well balanced cultivation of arid and marshy soils.

Finally there is Las Salinas, in the southern tip of the island, which is a cultural landscape. An age-old human activity has created a natural setting favourable to the maintenance of biodiversity. The collection of salt has always played a key role here, with a system of canals, dams and dykes which formed wetland areas of great beauty and ecological interest, with a specific flora and fauna.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Property nominated for inscription

- The Upper Town (Alta Vila) of Ibiza and its 16th Century Fortifications.

The Upper Town of Ibiza is the oldest area. It emerges like an acropolis standing on a headland facing the sea. Its architecture and physiognomy have not been changed since the fortifications were built in the 16th century, based on the military precepts of the Renaissance. The defensive walls and bastions have incorporated, in a much larger area, those which existed before, thus making it possible to study the stratigraphy of successive fortifications.

Ebysos (the town of Bes, an Egyptian god) was founded by the Carthaginians in 654 BC. Punic water tanks can still be seen, particularly in the area of El Soto. For 2000 years, the town and its fortified harbour were the centre of Mediterranean navigation. The local economy was based on the collection of salt from the pans, wool, and figs.

After a period of alliance with Rome, the island came under the control of the Arabs in 902. The excavated ruins of a strong earthen wall, as well as the urban plan of the medina, an Arab town spread over a surface of 4ha intra muros, date to this period. The medina consists of narrow streets lined by dwelling houses with windows looking over an inner courtyard, and surrounded by walls on three sides.

In 1235, the town was dominated by Christians, who built the Catalan castle, visible from the inside of the present building, the medieval fortifications, and the 13th century Gothic cathedral which can still be admired.

From 1530 to 1540, Philip II drew up a strategic plan to defend communications between Spain and Italy. In 1584-85, new fortifications were erected with the help of two specialized Italian architects, Giovanni Battista Calvi and Jacobo Paleazzo Fratin. These fortifications were to serve as models for the harbour towns of the Caribbean.

- The Phoenician-Punic cemetery of Puig des Molins

This large cemetery is situated in the south west of the Upper Town and covers a fully protected surface of several hectares. At the beginning of the 6th century BC, the ashes of the dead were placed in a natural grotto after cremation. Later, shafts and funerary chambers were dug, over a surface of 5ha and then 7ha. Monolithic sarcophagi were lowered through shafts into hypogea, family sepulchres. This cemetery was in use until the end of the Roman period.

The Phoenician Punic cemetery is the oldest to have been preserved, thus making it possible to study a wide variety of tombs, statues, and cult objects. It has been included in the urban perimeter and has added to the beauty of the site, with its terraces planted with olive trees to take advantage of the humidity of the underground chambers.

Compared to the 1986 request for inscription, the perimeter of the cemetery has been added to that of the Upper Town in the 1998 request.

- The Phoenician-Punic Archaeological Site of Sa Caleta

This is the site of the first Phoenician occupation, near the salt-pans. It was abandoned around 590 BC in favour of the site of Ibiza. This settlement covered the 5ha of the peninsula before it was eroded by the sea.

Excavations have unearthed walls of a thickness of 45-60cm. Scattered square-shaped buildings were linked by an irregular system of streets and triangular public areas, revealing an archaic form of urbanization. In the southern district, the substructures of a dwelling house can be visited; it is composed of a large rectangular room and seven other rooms, probably shops and kitchens. Bread was baked in 2m diameter ovens. The site was inhabited by a community of about 800 people, it had an egalitarian social structure, and an economy based on agriculture, metallurgy, salt, and fishing.

Properties located in the buffer zone

- Es Soto

Punic water tanks, tombs that extend the cemetery of Puig des Molins, as well as an old Moslem cemetery and the ruins of a Christian chapel, were unearthed in this southern part of the headland, between the defensive walls of Dalt Vila and the sea. The inclusion of this zone of archaeological interest, which is fortunately in a good state of preservation, makes it possible to maintain a green space between the fortifications and the sea.

- Ses Feixes

This area stretches along the coast, over a flat surface situated on the other side of the harbour, opposite the Upper Town. It displays a form of cultivation based on an ingenious irrigation system: the fields are divided into long, narrow rectangles by a network of canals which have a dual function of collecting water and irrigating the fields. This system permits an intensive but well balanced cultivation of arid and marshy soils. The proposal for inscription includes this site in the buffer zone as evidence of an agricultural organization that has both a technical and an aesthetic value.

- Las Salinas

Situated in the southern tip of the island, opposite the island of Formentera, this site is put forward as a cultural landscape. An age-old human activity has created a natural setting favourable to the maintenance of biodiversity. The collection of salt has always played a key role here. The area was laid out with a system of canals, dams, and dikes which formed wetland areas of great beauty and ecological interest, with a specific flora and fauna.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation