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Manú National Park

Manú National Park

This huge 1.5 million-ha park has successive tiers of vegetation rising from 150 to 4,200 m above sea-level. The tropical forest in the lower tiers is home to an unrivalled variety of animal and plant species. Some 850 species of birds have been identified and rare species such as the giant otter and the giant armadillo also find refuge there. Jaguars are often sighted in the park.

Parc national de Manú

Cet immense parc d'un million et demi d'hectares s'étage de 150 à 4 200 m, avec une variété de végétation correspondant aux diverses altitudes. La forêt tropicale des parties les moins élevées abrite une diversité d'espèces animales et végétales sans égale. C'est ainsi que 850 espèces d'oiseaux y ont été dénombrées. Des espèces rares comme la loutre géante et le tatou géant y ont trouvé refuge, et le jaguar y est assez répandu.

منتزه مانو الوطني

يمتد هذا المنتزه الشاسع على مليون هكتار ونصف، يتراوح علوّ النباتات فيه بين 150 و4200 متر، وتتنوع فيها أنواع النبات بحسب ارتفاعها. كما تأوي الغابة الاستوائية في أقسامها الاقلّ ارتفاعًا أجناسًا مختلفة من الحيوانات والنباتات التي لا تُضاهى. فعلى سبيل المثال، تم احصاء 850 جنسًا من الطيور فيها، ومنها النادرة كالقُضاعة العملاق والارمديل العملاق التي وجدت مأوى لها في هذه الغابة، حتى الفهد تكثر فيها أعداده.

source: UNESCO/ERI

玛努国家公园

玛努国家公园的面积有150万公顷,从海拔150米到4200米之间各层分布着不同种类的植物。在低层的热带丛林中,生活着丰富的动物和植物。此处已发现约850种鸟类以及罕见的巨型水獭和庞大的犰狳等动物。美洲虎也经常出没在这个公园里。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Национальный парк Ману

Огромный парк площадью 1,5 млн. га обладает самой разнообразной растительностью, которая охватывает высотные пояса от 150 м и до 4200 м над уровнем моря. В предгорных тропических лесах зафиксировано рекордное видовое разнообразие среди растений и животных. Здесь отмечены примерно 850 видов птиц, такие редкие животные как гигантская выдра и гигантский броненосец, часто встречается и ягуар.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Parque Nacional de Manú

Este inmenso parque de 1.500.000 hectáreas posee una gran variedad de vegetación estratificada entre 150 y 4.200 metros de altura. El bosque tropical de las zonas menos elevadas alberga una variedad incomparable de especies animales y vegetales. Se han identificado en él hasta 850 clases de pájaros. Algunas especies poco comunes como la nutria y el armadillo gigantes han encontrado refugio en este sitio, donde también se ha podido observar la presencia frecuente de jaguares.

source: UNESCO/ERI

マヌー国立公園

source: NFUAJ

Nationaal park Manú

Dit enorme park ligt in de provincies Manu en Paucartambo en beslaat 1,5 miljoen hectare met opeenvolgende lagen vegetatie die 150 tot 4.200 meter boven de zeespiegel uitstijgen. In het tropische woud – in de lagere delen van het park – komt een ongeëvenaarde verscheidenheid aan dier- en plantensoorten voor. De biologische diversiteit in het nationaal park Manú is groter dan die van elk ander gebied op aarde. Er zijn ongeveer 850 soorten vogels geïdentificeerd en zeldzame diersoorten zoals de reuzenotter en het reuzengordeldier kunnen hier onbedreigd leven. Ook worden er vaak jaguars waargenomen in het gebied.

Source: unesco.nl

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On the Manu River © Marc Patry
Long Description

The biological diversity found in Manú National Park exceeds that of any other place on Earth. The park is located in the provinces of Manú and Paucartambo, comprising lands on the eastern slopes of the Andes and the Peruvian Amazon. The area is situated within the Amazon River basin and protects almost the entire watershed of the River Manú and most of the tributaries of the River Alto Madre de Dios. Alluvial plains are found along the rivers where sediments may be deposited on a seasonal basis. The hills occupy the lowlands between the rivers and are relatively small with slopes, forming an undulating topography, which covers much of the park.

With a park the size of Manú, with a wide range of altitude, vegetation varies widely, however the most widespread vegetation types found are tropical lowland rainforest, tropical montane rainforest and puna vegetation (grasslands). The lowland forests occur on the alluvial plains and the interfluvial hills. Those on the hills may experience seasonal water supply, given the monthly variation in rainfall, whereas the forests on the alluvial plains are likely to be seasonally flooded. The montane forests experience less variation in the water supply and are exposed to lower temperatures.

Despite the high diversity of plant species in this region, the flora of Manú is still poorly known and floristic inventories must be considered as preliminary. In the last 10 years, 1,147 plant species have been identified in the park within quite a small area, and it is likely that the number of species to be found within the park is well over this figure. More recent data indicate 1,200 lowland vascular species and a single 1 ha plot near the Cocha Cashu research station supported more than 200 tree species. Another striking feature of these forests is the high abundance of Ficus , of which there are at least 18 species. Lianas are common. With the current knowledge of the flora of the park it is not possible to give a detailed account of threatened, endemic or potentially economically important species.

A total of more than 800 bird species and 200 species of mammals have been identified. Six species of macaw occur in the lowland forest. Three Endemic Bird Areas are represented within the park: the south-east Peruvian lowlands, the eastern and western Andes of Peru. There are 13 species of monkey, over 100 species of bat, 12 species of reptile, as well as 77 species of amphibian.

The park is inhabited by at least four different native groups: the Machiguenga, the Mascho-Piro, the Yaminahua and the Amahuaca. The best known and largest ethnic group within the park is the Machiguenga, found throughout the area with the exception of the highlands and upper parts of the Manú River. The forest Indians are nomadic, mostly subsistent on some form of root crop agriculture on alluvial soils along river banks and lakes, on hunting along water courses and inside the forest, on fishing and on the collection of turtle eggs. Shifting cultivation is the basic agricultural practice. In this system, a patch of primary forest or an abandoned field is cleared, burned and used during the first, second and sometimes third year for cultivation. The field is then abandoned for at least five years and a new one is opened up. As it is easier to clear secondary growth on abandoned fields than to clear the primary forest, the Indians prefer to reuse old fields. These peoples are considered part of the park's natural system, and are left to use the park as they please while their lifestyle does not threaten the park's objectives.

Most of the people within the park are Indians. Very little is known about the Amahuaca and Yaminahua distribution and their numbers are relatively small. There are no towns in the park, but there are some 70,000 Quechua-speaking inhabitants grouped in 30 rural communities in the high Andean zone, which is adjacent to the park in Paucartambo Province.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Established by Supreme Decree No.644-73-AG, 29 May 1973, and fully protected. Accepted as part of a MAB biosphere reserve March 1977, which also includes the Manu Reserved Zone established by Supreme Resolution No.151-1980, and adjacent areas of human settlement. Inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1987.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation