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Old Town of Ghadamès

Old Town of Ghadamès

Ghadamès, known as 'the pearl of the desert', stands in an oasis. It is one of the oldest pre-Saharan cities and an outstanding example of a traditional settlement. Its domestic architecture is characterized by a vertical division of functions: the ground floor used to store supplies; then another floor for the family, overhanging covered alleys that create what is almost an underground network of passageways; and, at the top, open-air terraces reserved for the women.

Ancienne ville de Ghadamès

Bâtie dans une oasis, Ghadamès, « la perle du désert », est une des plus anciennes cités présahariennes et un exemple exceptionnel d'habitat traditionnel. Son architecture domestique se caractérise par les différentes fonctions assignées à chaque niveau : rez-de-chaussée servant de réserve à provisions, étage familial surplombant des passages couverts aveugles qui permettent une circulation presque souterraine dans la ville et terrasses à ciel ouvert réservées aux femmes.

مدينة غدامس القديمة

بنيت غدامس في واحة وسميت "لؤلؤة الصحراء" وهي إحدى أقدم المدن التي قامت في حقبة ما قبل الصحراء وخير مثال على الموئل التقليدي. وتتميز هندستها المنزلية بتوزيعها الوظائف المختلفة على مختلف الطبقات: الطبقة الأرضية لتخزين المؤونة، والطبقة العائلية تشرف على ممرات مسقوفة مموهة تسمح بتنقل تحت الأرض تقريبًا في المدينة وشرفات مكشوفة مخصصة للنساء.

source: UNESCO/ERI

加达梅斯古镇

加达梅斯古镇建在沙漠绿洲上,历来以“沙漠之珠”著称,是撒哈拉北部边缘最古老的城市之一,同时也是传统聚集地的典范。那里,家庭建筑的突出特点是每一层都有不同的作用:底层储备给养,在漆黑封闭的过道上面另外突出的一层供家人生活居住,而顶层露天的平台是专为妇女准备的。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Старый город в Гадамесе

Гадамес - «жемчужина пустыни» - находится в оазисе. Это один из старейших городов на границе Сахары и выдающийся пример традиционного поселения. Его жилая архитектура характерна разделением функций по вертикали: первый этаж используется для складирования запасов, следующий этаж, нависающий над уличными проходами и создающий этим нечто похожее на сеть подземных пешеходных путей – для жизни семьи, наконец, наверху находится открытая терраса, предназначенная для женщин.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ciudad vieja de Ghadames

Construida en un oasis, Ghadames, “la perla del desierto”, es una de las más antiguas ciudades presaharianas y constituye un ejemplo notable de asentamiento humano tradicional. El reparto de funciones por planta es característico de su arquitectura doméstica: la planta baja sirve de almacén de provisiones; la planta superior cumple la función de vivienda familiar; y, por último, las terrazas a cielo abierto están reservadas a las mujeres. La planta superior domina una red de pasadizos cubiertos, sin luz, que permiten circular de forma prácticamente subterránea por toda la ciudad.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ガダーミスの旧市街

source: NFUAJ

Oude stad van Ghadamès

Ghadamès staat bekend als ‘de parel van de woestijn’ en ligt in een oase. Het is een van de oudste pre-Sahara steden en een goed voorbeeld van een traditionele nederzetting. De huiselijke architectuur wordt gekenmerkt door een verticale verdeling van functies: de begane grond wordt gebruikt om voorraden op te slaan, de volgende verdieping is bestemd voor de familie en bestaat uit overhangende, overdekte steegjes die een bijna ondergronds netwerk van gangen vormen. De derde verdieping – het dak – bestaat uit terrassen in de open lucht voor de vrouwen. Tegenwoordig is Ghadamès een kleine oasestad die naast een palmentuin ligt.

Source: unesco.nl

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Long Description

Ghadamès, known as the 'pearl of the desert', stands in an oasis. It is one of the oldest pre-Saharan cities and an outstanding example of a traditional settlement. Its domestic architecture is characterized by a vertical division of functions: the ground floor used to store supplies; then another floor for the family, overhanging covered alleys that create what is almost an underground network of passageways; and, at the top, open-air terraces reserved for the women. It is one of the oldest cities in the pre-Saharan region; it succeeded ancient Cydamae, a fortified city made an ally of Rome by Cornelius Balbus on his victorious expedition against the Garamantes in 19 BC.

Today it is a small oasis city situated next to a palm grove. None of the surviving buildings date from the protohistoric Berber period, or the period of Roman domination, yet a remarkable domestic architectural style distinguishes Ghadamès as a unique site among a series of pre-Saharan cities and settlements stretching along the northern edge of the desert from Libya to Mauritania. Roughly circular in layout, the historic city of Ghadamès comprises a cluster of houses. The reinforced outer walls of the houses on the edge of the city form a fortified wall. However, this rudimentary urban enclosure also incorporates, here and there, doors and bastions.

The basic units of the city are its houses, which have a minimum of two main floors. Access to the ground floor, which may be sunken, is by a single entrance door opens onto a narrow hallway leading to a rectangular-shaped room where provisions are stored, and, at the back, to a staircase. The staircase leads to a much more spacious upper level. Ground-level living space encroaches upon the blind enclosed passageways along the walls on the ground floor which open onto the city, forming arcades rather than actual streets. The first floor generally includes a raised attic and bedrooms, and sometimes a sitting-room; there may also be a second floor with a similar layout. At the level of the terraces (there may be three or four depending on the house) only the projecting portion formed by the raised attic rises above the roof, marked off by low enclosure walls.

The contradicting layout of this unusual city cannot be perceived as a whole. At ground level, the narrow, dark arcades cut off the main parts of the buildings, permitting virtually underground circulation; small, isolated family units are the salient feature of the upper floors. A kind of collective dimension is provided by the terraces, which form an open cityscape. However, they do so by separating the sexes: the terrace is the domain of women, and gives them a great deal of freedom, communicating between terraces; they make friends with neighbours and can even move about the 'roof' of the city. The covered arcades at ground level are generally reserved for men.

Ghadamès has conserved the original materials specific to this surprising urban structure: pisé or clay brick walls, woodwork, masonry and palm-wood casings. Lime-washing of the walls inside and in large outdoor areas brightens the rooms and highlights the spartan decorations, windows and gypsum niches, paintings and objects.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC