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Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias

Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias

In the 9th century the flame of Christianity was kept alive in the Iberian peninsula in the tiny Kingdom of the Asturias. Here an innovative pre-Romanesque architectural style was created that was to play a significant role in the development of the religious architecture of the peninsula. Its highest achievements can be seen in the churches of Santa María del Naranco, San Miguel de Lillo, Santa Cristina de Lena, the Cámara Santa and San Julián de los Prados, in and around the ancient capital city of Oviedo. Associated with them is the remarkable contemporary hydraulic engineering structure known as La Foncalada.

Monuments d’Oviedo et du royaume des Asturies

Au IXe siècle, la flamme de la chrétienté a été entretenue dans la péninsule Ibérique, dans le petit royaume des Asturies où est apparu un style novateur d'architecture préromane qui a joué un rôle important dans l'évolution de l'architecture religieuse de la péninsule. Les églises de Santa Maria del Naranco, San Miguel de Lillo, Santa Cristina de Lena, la Cámara Santa et San Julian de los Prados, situées dans la capitale Oviedo et aux alentours, en sont les illustrations les plus représentatives. On peut y associer la remarquable structure d'ingénierie hydraulique connue sous le nom de La Foncalada.

نصب أوفييدو وقصر الأستوريين

في القرن التاسع رست شعلة المسيحيّة في شبه الجزيرة الإبيريّة في مملكة الأستوريين الصغيرة حيث تجلّى أسلوب هندسي مبتكر سالف للحقبة الرومانيّة وهو أدّى دوراً مهمّاً في تطوّر الفنّ الهندسي الديني في شبه الجزيرة. وتشكّل كنائس سانتا ماريا ديل نارانكو، سان ميغيل دي ليلو، سانتا كريستينا دي لينا ولا كامارا سانتا وسان خوليان دي لوس برادوس القائمة في العاصمة أفييدو وجوارها أبلغ تجسيد عن تلك الحقبة ويُضاف إليها إبداع الهندسة المائيّة المعروف باسم لا فونكالادا.

source: UNESCO/ERI

奥维耶多古建筑和阿斯图里亚斯王国

公元9世纪,基督教的光焰照耀着伊比利亚半岛上的小国阿斯图里亚斯。在这里,一种新形式的前罗马式建筑风格产生了,这对于半岛地区宗教建筑的发展起到了意义深远的作用。这种建筑的最高成就可以通过古代首都奥维耶多城内和周围的诸多宗教建筑显现出来。它们是纳兰科圣玛丽教堂、里约的圣米盖尔教堂、莱那的圣克里斯蒂娜教堂、圣卡玛拉教堂和布拉多的圣胡里奥教堂。现在,还有一个现代建筑与这些宗教建筑相辉映,那就是著名的当代水利工程建筑丰卡拉达。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Памятники Овьедо и королевства Астурия

В IХ в. на всем Пиренейском полуострове очаг христианской религии теплился только в крошечном королевстве Астурия. Здесь сформировался прото-романский архитектурный стиль, что сыграло значительную роль в развитии религиозной архитектуры во всем регионе. Высшие проявления такого стиля можно видеть на примере церквей Санта-Мария-дель-Наранко, Сан-Мигель-де-Лилло, Санта-Кристина-де-Лена, Камара-Санта и Сан-Хулиан-де-лос-Прадос в древнем столичном городе Овьедо и вокруг него. Вблизи них находится выдающееся современное сооружение гидротехники, известное как Ла-Фонкалада.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Monumentos de Oviedo y del reino de Asturias

En el siglo IX, el pequeño reino de Asturias mantuvo viva la llama del cristianismo en la Península Ibérica. En su territorio nació un estilo innovador de arquitectura prerrománica que desempeñaría, más tarde, un importante papel en el desarrollo de la arquitectura religiosa de toda la Península. Emplazadas en la capital asturiana, Oviedo, y en sus alrededores, las iglesias de Santa María del Naranco, San Miguel de Lillo, Santa Cristina de Lena, San Julián de los Prados y la Cámara Santa de la catedral de San Salvador son los edificios más representativos de ese estilo. La notable obra de ingeniería hidráulica conocida por el nombre de La Foncalada forma también parte del sitio.

source: UNESCO/ERI

オビエド歴史地区とアストゥリアス王国の建造物群

source: NFUAJ

Monumenten van Oviedo en het Koninkrijk van Asturië

In de 9e eeuw werd het christendom in stand gehouden op het Iberisch schiereiland, onderdeel van het kleine Koninkrijk van Asturië. Hier werd een vernieuwende pre-Romaanse bouwstijl ontwikkeld, uniek omdat het noch een metamorfose van paleo-christelijke kunst, noch een kenmerk van Karolingische kunst was. De hoogtepunten worden gevormd door de kerken in en rond de oude hoofdstad Oviedo: de Santa María del Naranco, San Miguel de Lillo, Santa Cristina de Lena, de Cámara Santa en San Julián de los Prados. Bij de kerken hoort het bijzondere waterwerk La Foncalada. De Asturische bouwstijl heeft grote invloed gehad op de religieuze architectuur van het schiereiland.

Source: unesco.nl

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Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias © UNESCO
Long Description

The palaces and churches in the surroundings of Oviedo provide eminent testimony to the civilization of the small Christian Kingdom of Asturias during the splendour of the Emirate of Cordoba. Pre-Romanesque Asturian architecture represents a unique artistic achievement which is neither a metamorphosis of palaeo-Christian art nor a feature of Carolingian art. These churches, which are basilical in layout and entirely vaulted, and which make use of columns instead of piers, have very rich decors which contain Visigothic references, Arabic elements, and shapes that associate them with the great sanctuaries of Asia Minor. Asturian monuments have exerted a decisive influence on the development of medieval architecture on the Iberian peninsula.

On the morrow of the Arab conquest of Spain, the reconstitution in the mountains of Asturias of the tiny Christian kingdom of Pelage is of historical and cultural importance which greatly overshadows its political significance. For a long time, the existence of this principality, an offshoot of the Visigothic kingdom, remained precarious and it is not without a certain prejudice that the battle of Covadonga (718) was portrayed as the first victory in a war against Islam which lasted eight centuries, drawing to a close as it did with the taking of Granada by the Catholic kings.

However, the Kingdom of Asturias, although frequently threatened by Arab raids (Oviedo was captured in 789, then sacked again in 794), became a stronghold of Christianity in the 9th century and a special brand of architecture took root there, reaching its apogee under the reign of Ramiré I (842-50) whom the narrative sources (chronicles of Albelda, Sebastian, and Silos) portray as a great builder.

Santa María del Naranco and San Miguel de Lillo, sanctuaries which are located in the immediate vicinity of the capital of the kingdom, Oviedo, on the slopes of Mont Naranco, both are traced back to the reign of Ramiré. A third edifice, which is slightly more recent, makes use of the spatial, structural and decorative innovations of the Ramirian period: it is the church of Santa Cristina de Lena, 37 km south of Oviedo on the road to León.

Santa María del Naranco is a former royal residence built on two levels. Excavations in 1930-34 revealed the existence of baths in one of the lower rooms. This rectangular Ramirian palace which was converted into a church between 905 and 1065, has exterior stairways at the north end and a balcony at the south end; it opens to the east and west via loggias which act as lookout points poised upon bays and open at all three sides.

San Miguel de Lillo, which has been a church right from the very start, has only retained the first two admirably balanced bays of an ambitious building which bears a strong resemblance to the Naranco Palace.

Santa Cristina de Lena, a harmonious but smaller version of these exceptional creations embodies the final phase of this incomparable Asturian architecture (c . 850-66), if it is indeed true, as believed, that this was the chapel of the royal domain of Ordoño I.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Fruela I, King of Asturias from 757 to 768, founded a basilica dedicated to the Saviour at a place then known as Ovetao, with a royal residence alongside, where his son Alfonso II was born. At about the same time a monastic community established itself in the same place and built a monastery dedicated to San Vicente.

The new settlement was destroyed during the campaign of the Cordoban Emirate in 794-95; however, it was rebuilt by Alfonso II and served as his capital. During his long reign (791-842) Oviedo was provided with many new ecclesiastical and secular buildings; these included the rebuilt basilica and monastery, a second basilica dedicated to San Tirso, a church dedicated to the Virgin, palaces, and baths inside the walls and a third basilica, dedicated to San Julián and Santa Basilisa extra muros.

The two religious establishments on the southern side of the Naranco, Santa María del Naranco and San Miguel, were built during the harsh reign of Ramiro I (842-50). It is not known why he chose to locate these some miles outside the capital of his predecessor. The contribution of Alfonso III, last and greatest of the Asturian kings (866-910), was the construction of a fortress to the north-east, outside the walls. Below the castle, in a quarter known from its location as Socastiello, was the Jewish quarter in late medieval times.

It was around this time that the remains of the Cordoban martyrs Eulogius and Leocricia were brought to Oviedo. A treasury was built at the Cathedral to house them, the Cámara Santa (Holy Chamber), which was to become a place of pilgrimage in the later Middle Ages.

On the death of Alfonso, the Royal court moved to León and Oviedo had a setback, since it lost its important royal connections. However, it continued to hold a high place in religious and ecclesiastical affairs, rivalling Santiago de Compostela as a place of pilgrimage. It also attracted a number of Frankish immigrants, to such an extent that two separate jurisdictions were set up, one for the Castilian and the other for the Frankish part of the population. This connection with south-western France continued throughout the Middle Ages.

Oviedo was given its first legal regulations, the Fuero Charter, during the reign of Alfonso VI of León and Castille (1065-1105). These clearly excluded those citizens who paid allegiance to the Bishop of Oviedo and not to the Crown. The city was given the right to build new fortifications around its extended urban area by Alfonso IX (1188-1230). It quickly expanded beyond these limits, and communities of mendicant friars were established outside. During this time the influence of the religious foundations - the Cathedral and the monasteries of San Pelayo and Santa María in particular - grew considerably, and much of the urban land was in their possession.

This medieval order came to an end with the disastrous fire on Christmas Day 1521. In the subsequent reconstruction the townsfolk freed themselves to a considerable extent from ecclesiastical overlordship. Secular public buildings were erected, such as the Town Hall, the Magistrates' Court (Audiencia), and the University, and the 17th and 18th centuries saw many fine bourgeois palaces and houses built.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation
Notes
  • Extension of the "Churches of the Kingdom of the Asturias", to include monuments in the city of Oviedo.