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Historic District of Old Québec

Historic District of Old Québec

Québec was founded by the French explorer Champlain in the early 17th century. It is the only North American city to have preserved its ramparts, together with the numerous bastions, gates and defensive works which still surround Old Québec. The Upper Town, built on the cliff, has remained the religious and administrative centre, with its churches, convents and other monuments like the Dauphine Redoubt, the Citadel and Château Frontenac. Together with the Lower Town and its ancient districts, it forms an urban ensemble which is one of the best examples of a fortified colonial city.

Arrondissement historique du Vieux-Québec

Fondée par l'explorateur français Champlain au début du XVIIe siècle, Québec demeure la seule ville d'Amérique du Nord à avoir conservé ses remparts qui regroupent de nombreux bastions, portes et ouvrages défensifs ceinturant toujours le Vieux-Québec. La Haute-Ville, située au sommet de la falaise, centre religieux et administratif, avec ses églises, ses couvents et autres monuments comme la redoute Dauphine, la Citadelle et le Château Frontenac, et la Basse-Ville, avec ses quartiers anciens, forment un ensemble urbain qui est un des meilleurs exemples de ville coloniale fortifiée.

الدائرة التاريخية للكيبيك القديم

أسّس المستكشف الفرنسي شامبلان مدينة الكيبيك في مطلع القرن السابع عشر وهي لا تزال المدينة الوحيدة في أميركا الشمالية التي حافظت على أسوارها المؤلفة من عدة مواقع محصنّة وأبواب ودعائم دفاعية تلّف الكيبيك القديمة حتى يومنا هذا. وتضم المدينة العليا التي تقع في أعلى الجرف وتمثّل مركزاً دينياً وإدارياً مهماً مجموعة من الكنائس والأديرة وغيرها من المباني كمعقل دوفين والقلعة وقصر فرونتوناك، وهي تشكّل، مع المدينة السفلى وأحيائها القديمة، مجموعة حضرية لعلّها أحد أفضل الأمثلة عن المدينة المستعمرة المحصنّة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

魁北克古城区

魁北克城是由法国探险家查普伦(Champlain)在17世纪早期修建的,是北美唯一保存有城墙以及大量的堡垒、城门、防御工事的城市,这些工程至今仍环绕着魁北克古城。上城区建立在悬崖上,至今仍然是宗教和行政中心。城区内有教堂、女修道院和一些建筑物,如王妃城堡、要塞和弗隆特纳克堡(Dauphine Redoubt)。上城区、下城区和老城区一起构成了城市的整体,这是具有最完备防御系统的殖民城市之一。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Исторический район города Квебек

Квебек был основан французским исследователем Шампленом в начале XVII в. Это единственный город в Северной Америке, сохранивший валы с множеством бастионов, ворот и оборонительных устройств, и сейчас еще окружающих Старый Квебек. Верхний город, построенный на утесе, остался религиозным и административным центром с церквями, монастырями и другими памятниками – редутом Дофин, цитаделью, и гостиницей Шато-Фронтенак. Вместе с Нижним городом и его старыми кварталами это формирует городской ансамбль, который является одним из лучших примеров колониального укрепленного города.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Distrito histórico del antiguo Quebec

Fundada a comienzos del siglo XVII por el explorador francés Champlain, la ciudad vieja de Quebec está rodeada por una muralla con múltiples baluartes, puertas y fortificaciones, y es la única ciudad de América del Norte que la ha conservado intacta. La Ciudad Alta, edificada en la cima del acantilado, es aún el centro religioso y administrativo y posee numerosas iglesias, conventos y otros monumentos como el reducto Dauphine, la ciudadela y el castillo Frontenac. Junto con los barrios viejos de la Ciudad Baja, forma un conjunto urbano que es un excelente ejemplo una ciudad colonial fortificada.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ケベック旧市街の歴史地区

source: NFUAJ

Historisch district van Oud Quebec

Quebec werd in de vroege 17e eeuw gesticht door de Franse ontdekkingsreiziger Champlain. Het is de enige Noord-Amerikaanse stad waarvan de stadsmuren bewaard zijn gebleven, samen met de vele bastions, poorten en defensieve werken die het Oude Quebec nog steeds omringen. De Bovenstad – gebouwd op de klif – is het religieuze en administratieve centrum gebleven. Er zijn kerken, kloosters en andere monumenten te vinden, zoals de Dauphine Redoubt, de Citadel en Château Frontenac. Samen met de Benedenstad en de oude wijken vormt het een van de beste voorbeelden van een versterkte koloniale stad.

Source: unesco.nl

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Historic District of Old Québec © Silvan Rehfeld
Statement of Significance

Founded in the 18th century, Québec, illustrates one of the major stages in the European settlement of the Americas: notably, it was the capital of New France and, after 1760, of the new British colony. The Historic District of Old Québec is made up of two parts: the Upper Town, defended by fortified ramparts, citadel, and other defensive works; and the Lower Town, which developed around the Place Royale and the harbour. A well-preserved integrated urban ensemble, the historic district is a remarkable example of a fortified city of the colonial era, and unique north of Mexico.

Criterion (iv): A coherent and well preserved urban ensemble, the Historic District of Old Québec is an exceptional example of a fortified colonial town and by far the most complete north of Mexico.

Criterion (vi):  Québec, the former capital of New France, illustrates one of the major stages in the European settlement of the cololonization of the Americas by Europeans.

Long Description

Québec illustrates one of the major stages in the population and growth of the Americas during the modern and contemporary period. When Samuel de Champlain founded Québec, the capital of New France, in 1608 he chose the natural site of a steep plateau overlooking the St Laurent River. The old heart of the city was established on this promontory, Cap-aux-Diamants, which is protected by Fort St Louis.

Québec, which was a fortified city, a centre of population, and a harbour where ships delivered manufactured goods from Europe and loaded the precious pelts from the Great North, had an urban organization very early on and a zoning system which stemmed from these various functions. The cliff obviously divided the city into two districts: the district of business, barter, and the navy located in the Lower City, and the administrative and religious centre which gradually took hold in the Upper City.

Under English domination from 1759 to 1867 urban growth stayed within the limits of the site, and so the city expanded towards the west, all the way to the ramparts built in 1720 by Gaspard Chaussegros de Léry.

The construction of a citadel at the far south-east end of Cap-aux-Diamants by the engineer Elias Durnford from 1819 to 1831 and the expansion of the system of fortifications to cover the city's entire perimeter were in keeping with the original spatial organization of the city and gave Québec its current topographical features. The city is an early example of urban heritage conservation as a result of the action of Lord Dufferin, who from 1875 to 1880 took a stand against the demolition of the fortifications which, from a strategic standpoint, had become useless. He simply had new gates to the city cut into them. From the beginning of the 20th century, and so well before being classified as a historic monument in 1957, the fortified walls of Québec were maintained by Canadian government funds.

The oldest quarters are located in the Lower City in the vicinity of the Place Royale, which along with the Rue Notre Dame is lined with old 17th- and 18th-century houses. Notre-Dame des Victoires Church, which was built starting in 1688 according to Claude Baillif's plans and which was burned down during the siege of 1759, was rebuilt during the English domination. In the Upper City, the convents of the Jesuits (1625), the Recolletés (1629) and the Ursulines (1642), along with the Seminary (1663), have not retained their original form. However, despite the vicissitudes of history (the siege of 1759, great fires in the 18th and 19th centuries) they have retained some of the original elements. Of the 700 old civil or religious buildings remaining, 2% date back to the 17th century, 9% to the 18th century and 43% to the first half of the 19th century. At the same time, the city took on its present aspect, which was greatly influenced by the Baillairgés, a dynasty of architects who, for several generations, imposed an interesting interpretation of the neoclassical style.

A coherent urban ensemble, Québec's historic district, including the citadel, the Upper City defended by walls with bastions, and the Lower City with its harbour and old quarters, provides an outstanding example of a fortified colonial town, which is by far the most complete in North America.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC