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Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl

Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl

Set in an idyllic garden landscape, Augustusburg Castle (the sumptuous residence of the prince-archbishops of Cologne) and the Falkenlust hunting lodge (a small rural folly) are among the earliest examples of Rococo architecture in 18th-century Germany.

Châteaux d'Augustusburg et de Falkenlust à Brühl

Dans le cadre idéal d'un paysage de jardins, le château d'Augustusburg, somptueuse résidence des princes-archevêques de Cologne, et le pavillon de Falkenlust, petite « folie » champêtre, sont parmi les premières manifestations du style rococo dans l'Allemagne du XVIIIe siècle.

قصرا أوغسطسبرغ وفالكن لوست في بروهل

يقع قصر أغسطسبرغ في إطار مثالي من الجمال ضمن مجموعة حدائق وهو مقر فخم لأمراء – أساقفة كولونيا. ويُضاف إليه جناح فولكنلاست، وهو "شهوة" زراعية صغيرة شيّدت في الحقول، ليشكّل المبنيان أوائل براعم نمط الروكوكو في المانيا في القرن الثامن عشر.

source: UNESCO/ERI

布吕尔的奥古斯塔斯堡古堡和法尔肯拉斯特古堡

奥古斯塔斯堡周围风景优美,颇具田园风情,这里曾是科洛涅(Cologne)大主教奢华的住所,而法尔肯拉斯特古堡(the Falkenlust hunting lodge)则是一处狩猎场(小规模乡下活动)。这两个建筑都是18世纪德国洛可可风格最早的杰作。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Дворец Аугустусбург и охотничий замок Фалькенлуст в городе Брюль

Дворец Аугустусбург, роскошная резиденция кëльнских князей-архиепископов, и охотничий замок Фалькенлуст расположены в идиллическом садовом ландшафте. Эти здания относятся к самым ранним образцам архитектуры рококо в Германии XVIII в.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Castillos de Augustusburg y Falkenlust en Brühl

El palacio de Augustusburgo fue la suntuosa residencia de los arzobispos-príncipes de Colonia. En medio de los espléndidos jardines que lo rodean se halla el pabellón de Falkenlust, una casita de recreo de estilo rural. Ambas construcciones figuran entre las primeras obras arquitectónicas del arte rococó en la Alemania del siglo XVIII.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ブリュールのアウグストゥスブルク城と別邸ファルケンルスト

source: NFUAJ

Kastelen van Augustusburg en Falkenlust in Brühl

Het kasteel van Augustusburg is de weelderige residentie van de prins-aartsbisschoppen van Keulen. Beroemde kunstenaars uit Europa werkten mee aan de bouw, onder andere Balthasar Neumann die een schitterend trappenhuis ontwierp. Architectuur, beeldhouwkunst, schilderkunst en parkontwerp maken dit kasteel tot een hoogtepunt in de Duitse rococo. Het jachtslot Falkenlust is een landhuis vol symmetrie. Op de begane grond bevindt zich een ovale salon vol improvisatie, charme en vrijheid. De muren zijn bedekt met schelpen en stenen. De kastelen van Augustusburg en Falkenlust liggen in een idyllisch tuinlandschap en zijn de vroegste voorbeelden van de Rococo architectuur in de 18e eeuw in Duitsland.

Source: unesco.nl

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Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust at Brühl © OUR PLACE
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Set in an idyllic garden landscape, begun by architect Johann Conrad Schlaun, and finished by François de Cuvilliés, Augustusburg Castle, the sumptuous residence of the prince-archbishops of Cologne, and the Falkenlust hunting lodge, a small rural folly, are among the earliest and best examples of 18-century Rococo architecture in Germany, and directly linked to the great European architecture and art of unprecedented richness of the time. In 1725, Clemens August of Bavaria (1700-1761), Prince-Elector and archbishop of Cologne, planned and constructed this large residence at Brühl on the foundations of a medieval castle. It consists of three wings built of brick with rough-cast rendering and has two adjoining orangeries, one on the south side which includes an oratory, while the other to the north houses various service buildings.

The Castle of Augustusburg, a bold and successful revamping of the lack-lustre construction of Schlaun and the hunting lodge of Falkenlust, a dazzling creation, ex nihilio, are one of the best examples of the Rococo style, this international art of unprecedented richness. At Augustusburg, the staircase of Balthasar Neumann – considered a work of creative genius – is a rapturous structure which unites a lively movement of marble and stucco, jasper columns and caryatids, and culminates in the astonishing frescoed ceiling of Carlo Carlone. The central block, the wings of the parade, and the private apartments are organised in a hierarchy of effects of outstanding conception, while the décor “bon enfant” of the new grand summer apartments, with its faience tiles from the Low Countries, opposes the “official” programme.

The Castle of Falkenlust stands in its own small park. It was built by François de Cuvilliés between 1729 and 1737 for Prince-Elector of Cologne, Clemens August, to practise his favourite sport of falconry. The main building has two floors and is built in the style of a country house in brick with a rough-cast rendering. It is flanked by two rectangular single-storey buildings, which originally housed the Prince Elector´s falcons and are now mainly used for exhibitions.

Falkenlust is a country house with symmetrical avant-corps. On the ground floor, an oval salon is conceived in the same language of improvisation, charm, and liberty François de Cuvilliés was known for in his work. In the Chapel, the Bordelais Laporterie, an astonishing marine grotto was created, its walls faced with shells and concretions.

The large gardens of Augustusburg and Falkenlust, laid out in a single campaign, both oppose and complement each other.

At Augustusburg, Dominique Girard (ca. 1680 – 1738, pupil of Le Nôtre) proved more aware of landscape decor, multiplying monumental ramps and symmetrical flowerbeds, as those of the gardens of Nymphenburg, Schleissheim, and the Belvedere of Vienna. The core of the gardens, situated on the south side of the Castle, is a two-part embroidery-like parterre that includes four fountains and the Mirror Pool fed by a small cascade, running from a circular basin with an impressive fountain. Alleys lined with lime-trees flank the embroidery parterre and lead to triangular boscages. The adjoining semi-circular park is enclosed by a ditch and a wall. The main alley is crossed diagonally by a second pathway, lined with lime trees, and leads south-east through the field to the Castle of Falkenlust.

At Falkenlust, the landscaping, although highly concentrated, nonetheless endeavours to create the randomness of a natural site.

Criterion (ii): Augustusburg and Falkenlust represent the first important creations of Rococo style in Germany. For more than a century, they were a model in the majority of the princely courts.

Criterion (iv): The castles and gardens of Augustusburg and Falkenlust are the eminent example of the large princely residence of the 18th century.

Integrity

The whole site comprising the Castle of Augustusburg, its park and gardens, and the Castle of Falkenlust, contains all the elements necessary to express the Outstanding Universal Value.

Authenticity

The original overall design of the Castles has been maintained to an exceptional extent. It has preserved its character as a Rococo electoral residence and has, in large part, been spared any subsequent transformations due to continued use and function as a residence and museum.

The gardens of Augustusburg Castle are among the few in Europe to have been restored to their original plan. They can be said to be the most authentic example of formal gardens in the French style outside of France.

Protection and management requirements

The laws and regulations of the Federal Republic of Germany and the State of North Rhine-Westphalia guarantee the consistent protection of the Castles of Augustusburg and Falkenlust. They are listed monuments according to § 2 and § 3 of the Act on the Protection and Conservation of Monuments in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia. Building activities within and outside the property are regulated by § 9 (2) Protection Law, Local Building Plans and regional Land Use Plans. Furthermore, the property is protected by the Federal Nature Conservation Act. The castles are opened to the public as museums.

The State of North Rhine-Westphalia, as owner of the property, is responsible for the budget, the management, the conservation, and the sustainable use of the World Heritage site. Construction and conservation issues are organized and managed in close co-operation with the Office for the Conservation of Monuments of the Rhineland Regional Council (LVR – Amt für Denkmalpflege). The management system consists of a set of maintenance and conservation measures which is checked yearly and updated when required by a Steering Committee; members are representatives of the State, the District Government Office Cologne, the Palace Administration, and the Monument Conservation Office.

Long Description

Augustusburg and Falkenlust present the first important creations of the Rococo style in Germany. For more than a century, they served as models for most of the princely courts. Like the Residence of Würzburg, the castles and gardens are outstanding examples of the large princely residence of the 18th century.

Set in an idyllic garden landscape, Augustusburg Castle, the sumptuous residence of the prince-archbishops of Cologne, and the Falkenlust hunting lodge, a small rural folly, are among the earliest examples of Rococo architecture in 18th-century Germany.

A Rococo masterpiece, the castle of Augustusburg is directly linked to the great European architecture of the first half of the 18th century. In 1715, Josef-Clemens of Bavaria, Prince-Elector of Cologne, planned to construct a large residence at Brühl, on the foundations of a medieval castle. He consulted a French architect, Robert de Cotte, who sent the plans. However, this project was not immediately followed up and Prince-Elector Clemens-August, who was less francophile than his father, rejected de Cotte's proposals and in 1725 called on a Westphalian architect, Johann Conrad Schlaun, to build the castle that was to carry his name.

Schlaun's tenure lasted three years. Before his departure in 1728, he constructed, with less creative genius than economic sense, a building of three wings that incorporated the medieval ruins and the north tower of the earlier castle. Under the impulse of the architect who followed Schlaun, French influence manifested itself again. However, François de Cuvillies, who had been lent by the Elector of Bavaria to his relative, represented tendencies distinct from the classicism of de Cotte. An architect at the court of Munich since 1724, he above all valued a type of ornament which was based on a system of asymmetry and invention, in imitation of Meissonier.

His Baroque tendencies, brought to life by the Rococo style of the years of the Regency, found fertile ground in the German Empire, where Rococo reigned at Vienna as at Munich, integrating in the same workshop Austrian, Bavarian, Italian, and French artists. The castle of Augustusburg, a bold and successful revamping of the lacklustre construction of Schlaun, and the hunting lodge of Falkenlust, a dazzling creation, ex nihilo, are among the best examples of this international art of unprecedented richness.

At Augustusburg, around a piece of creative genius, the staircase of Balthasar Neumann, which is a rapturous structure that unites a lively movement of marble and stucco, jasper columns, and caryatids, culminating in the astonishing frescoed ceiling of Carlo Carlone, in the central block, the wings of the parade and the private apartments are organized in a hierarchy of effects of outstanding conception. The bon enfant decor of the new grand summer apartments with its faience tiles from the Low Countries is in striking opposition to the 'official' programme.

Falkenlust is a country house with symmetrical avant-corps. On the ground floor, an oval salon is conceived in the same language, full of improvization, charm, and liberty. In the chapel, the Bordelais Laporterie created an astonishing marine grotto by facing the walls with shells and concretions. The large gardens, laid out in a single campaign, both oppose and complement each other. At Augustusburg, Dominique Girard, a pupil of Le Nôtre, proved to be more sensitive to decorum, multiplying monumental ramps and symmetrical flower beds, like those of the gardens of Nymphenburg, Schleissheim, and the Belvedere of Vienna, of which he was also the designer. At Falkenlust the landscaping, although highly concerted, nonetheless endeavours to create the randomness of a natural site.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC