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Convent of Christ in Tomar

Convent of Christ in Tomar

Originally designed as a monument symbolizing the Reconquest, the Convent of the Knights Templar of Tomar (transferred in 1344 to the Knights of the Order of Christ) came to symbolize just the opposite during the Manueline period – the opening up of Portugal to other civilizations.

Couvent du Christ à Tomar

Conçu à l'origine pour célébrer la Reconquête, le couvent des Templiers de Tomar, devenu en 1334 le siège de l'ordre des Chevaliers du Christ, se transforma à l'époque manuéline en un symbole inverse, celui de l'ouverture du Portugal à d'autres civilisations.

دير السيد المسيح في تومار

بعد أن تم بناؤه أساساً للاحتفال بحروب الاسترداد، تحوّل دير الرهبان في تومار الذي اصبح عام 1344 مقراً لجماعة فرسان المسيح الى رمز معاكس يجسّد انفتاح البرتغال على سائر الحضارات في عصر الملك مانويل.

source: UNESCO/ERI

托马尔的克赖斯特女修道院

这座托马尔圣堂武士修道院(后于1344年成为十字军救护团骑士修女院),最初是为了象征骑士的征服行程而修建的,但后来,这个修道院在曼奴埃尔王朝统治时代却被赋予了相反的象征意义,即葡萄牙开始对其他文明开放的象征。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Монастырь Христа в городе Томар

Первоначально задуманный как памятник, символизирующий реконкисту, этот монастырь рыцарей-тамплиеров (перешедший в 1344 г. к рыцарям Ордена Христа) стал играть совсем иную роль в мануэлинский период – роль символа открытости Португалии для других народов мира.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Convento de Cristo en Tomar

Monumento simbólico de exaltación de la Reconquista, el convento de la Orden del Temple en Tomar fue transferido en 1344 a la Orden de los Caballeros de Cristo. En la época manuelina llegó a simbolizar, en cambio, la apertura de Portugal a otras civilizaciones.

source: UNESCO/ERI

トマールのキリスト教修道院

source: NFUAJ

Klooster van Christus in Tomar

Het klooster van de Tempeliers van Tomar werd oorspronkelijk ontworpen als monument dat de Herovering symboliseert. In de tweede helft van de 12e eeuw werden de Tempeliers naar Portugal gehaald waar ze een groot aandeel hadden in de Herovering. Hun eerste en belangrijkste fort was Tomar. Het klooster werd in 1344 overgedragen aan de Ridders van de orde van Christus. Tijdens de Manuelijnse periode kreeg het een andere symbolische betekenis: de openstelling van Portugal voor andere beschavingen. Tomar werd in de loop der tijd verfraaid en is nu een van de meest prestigieuze monumenten van Portugal.

Source: unesco.nl

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Long Description

The Convent of Tomar, originally conceived as a symbolic monument of the Reconquest, became, from the Manueline period, an inverse symbol: that of the opening of Portugal to external civilizations.

During the second half of the 12th century, the Knights Templar were called to Portugal where they were of considerable assistance in the Reconquest. Their first and principal fortress was Tomar. When, in the 14th century, the Order of the Knights Templar was abolished and replaced by the Knights of the Order of Christ, Tomar lost none of its importance. Successive embellishments rendered it one of the most prestigious monuments of Portugal.

The original church, built at the end of the 12th century by the first great Master of the Templars, Gualdim Pais, was based on a polygonal ground plan of 16 bays including an octagonal choir with ambulatory: this is one of the typical 'rotondas' of Templar architecture of which all too few examples are still extant in Europe.

Cloisters were added at different periods: that of the cemetery, constructed to the north-east of the rotunda around 1430 by Infante Don Henrique, employed pointed arches of a sober, elegant Gothic style.

The Manueline influence was, as elsewhere, decisive and compelling: it was under King Manuel that Diego de Arruda was commissioned to create the enormous choir based on a square plan with a tribune raised above the chapter-room. The elevations of these two storeys are marked on the exterior by two renowned bays, a window and an oculus, whose prodigious decor combines with stupefying ease Gothic reminiscences and Moorish influences, offering the most accomplished expression of the Manueline decorative style.

Other cloisters and new monastic buildings were constructed under João III by João de Castilho which, at Tomar as at Belém, were not insensitive to Italian influence. The evolution terminated in the second half of the century in the cloister of the 'Philips', the principal cloister, modified by Diego de Torralva, and finished by F. Terzi: the facades are set into rhythm by a magnificent Palladian ordering of two storeys of Corinthian and Tuscan columns.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC