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Monastery of Batalha

Monastery of Batalha

The Monastery of the Dominicans of Batalha was built to commemorate the victory of the Portuguese over the Castilians at the battle of Aljubarrota in 1385. It was to be the Portuguese monarchy's main building project for the next two centuries. Here a highly original, national Gothic style evolved, profoundly influenced by Manueline art, as demonstrated by its masterpiece, the Royal Cloister.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Monastère de Batalha

Édifié pour commémorer la victoire des Portugais sur les Castillans à la bataille d'Aljubarrota en 1385, le monastère des dominicains de Batalha fut pendant deux siècles le grand chantier de la monarchie portugaise où se développa un style gothique national original, profondément influencé par l'art manuélin, comme le montre le cloître royal, véritable chef-d'œuvre.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

دير بطليوس

شكّل دير الرهبان الدومينيكيين في بطليوس الذي شيّد احتفاء بذكرى انتصار البرتغاليين على القشطاليين في معركة الجبروت عام 1385 ورشة كبرى أقامتها المملكة البرتغالية على مدى قرنين وتطور فيها طراز قوطي وطني فريد شديد التأثر بالفن المانويلي، كما يظهر في الرواق الملكي الذي يُعتبر تحفة حقيقية.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

巴塔利亚修道院

这座多明各会的巴塔利亚修道院是为了纪念1385年葡萄牙王国在阿尔儒巴罗塔战役中战胜卡斯提尔王国而建立的。在后来的两个多世纪中,葡萄牙王室一直把修建这座修道院当作最重要的建设工程之一。巴塔利亚修道院展示出了高度原创和有葡萄牙特色的哥特式风格,整个建筑明显受到曼奴埃尔式风格的深刻影响,这一点从皇家修道院这一建筑杰作中可以很清楚地看出来。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Монастырь Баталья

Доминиканский монастырь Баталья был сооружен в память о победе португальцев над кастильцами в 1385 г. в сражении при Алжубаррота. Ему суждено было стать главным объектом строительства португальских королей в следующие два столетия. Здесь проявилась весьма специфичная национальная разновидность готики, возникшая под сильным влиянием стиля мануэлино, что демонстрирует такой шедевр как Королевский клостер.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Monasterio de Batalha

El monasterio dominico de Batalha fue erigido para conmemorar la victoria de los portugueses sobre los castellanos en la batalla de Aljubarrota (1385). Su construcción, que fue la principal empresa arquitectónica de los monarcas portugueses durante dos siglos, dio nacimiento a un estilo gótico nacional hondamente influido por el arte manuelino, como puede apreciarse en el claustro real, auténtica obra maestra de la arquitectura.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

バターリャの修道院
レイリア行政区、リスボンの北約120km。1385年に王位継承問題から大国カスティーリャ王国軍と戦ったポルトガル王ジョアン1世軍は、聖母に祈りを捧げ、奇跡の勝利を得た。戦勝後、戦闘場所の近くに建設されたのが、この「勝利の聖母マリア修道院」である。18世紀の地震やフランス軍の侵攻にも耐えて、ポルトガル国民の誇りを今に伝えている。最もユニークで重要な、ゴシックとマヌエル様式の混合する建築物の一つである。

source: NFUAJ

Klooster van Batalha

Het Dominicaanse klooster van Batalha werd gebouwd om de overwinning van de Portugezen op de Castilianen te herdenken, in de slag van Aljubarrota in 1385. Het moest dienen als begraafplaats van de leden van het Portugese koningshuis. De daaropvolgende twee eeuwen zou het complex het belangrijkste bouwproject van de Portugese monarchie worden. Tijdens de bouw ontwikkelde zich een zeer originele, nationale gotische stijl, die sterk beïnvloed werd door de Manuelijnse kunst. Een meesterwerk hiervan is het Koninklijk Klooster, dat in 1416 werd voltooid. Het grootste deel van het monumentale kloostercomplex Batalha dateert uit de regeringsperiode van João I.

Source: unesco.nl

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Monastery of Batalha (Portugal) © Fiona Starr
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Constructed in fulfilment of a vow by King João to commemorate the victory over the Castilians at Aljubarrota (15 August 1385), the Dominican Monastery of Batalha, in the centre of Portugal, is one of the masterpieces of Gothic art. The greater part of the monumental complex dates from the reign of João I (1385-1433), when the church (finished in 1416), the royal cloister, the chapter-house, and the funeral chapel of the founder were constructed.

The design has been attributed to the English architect Master Huguet. The chapel's floor plan consists of an octagonal space inserted in a square, creating two separate volumes that combine most harmoniously. The ceiling consists of an eight-point star-shaped lantern. The most dramatic feature is to be found in the centre of the chapel: the enormous medieval tomb of Dom João I and his wife, Queen Philippa of Lancaster. Bays in the chapel walls contain the tombs of their sons, among them Prince Henry the Navigator.

The main entrance of the church is through the porch on the west facade. On both sides of this portal are sculptures of the twelve apostles standing on consoles. In the centre is a high relief statue of Christ in Majesty surrounded by the Evangelists, framed by six covings decorated with sculptures of biblical kings and queens, prophets and angels holding musical instruments from the Middle Ages. This great profusion of sculptures is completed by the crowning of the Virgin Mary.

As a monument charged with a symbolic value from its foundation, the Monastery of Batalha was, for more than two centuries, the great workshop of the Portuguese monarchy. It is not surprising that the most characteristic features of a national art would have been determined there, during both the Gothic and the Renaissance periods. Batalha is the conservatory of several privileged expressions of Portuguese art: the sober architectural style of the end of the 14th century, with the stupendous nave of the abbatial, of which the two-storey elevation, with broad arcades and high windows, renders most impressive; the exuberant aesthetic of the capelas imperfeitas; the flamboyant arcades embroidered in a lace-work of stone: the Manueline Baroque even more perceptible in the openwork decor of the tracery of the arcades of the royal cloister than on the immense portal attributed to Mateus Fernandes the Elder; and finally, the hybrid style of João de Castilho, architect of the loggia constructed under João III (1521-1557).

Criterion (i): The Dominican Monastery of Batalha is one of the absolute masterpieces of Gothic art.

Criterion (ii): The Monastery of Batalha was, for more than two centuries, an important workshop of the Portuguese monarchy. The most characteristic features of a national art were determined here, both during the Gothic and the Renaissance periods.

Integrity

Within the boundaries of the 0,98 ha property are located all the necessary elements to express the Outstanding Universal Value of the Monastery of Batalha. To reduce the traffic in the old main road (EN1) which crossed the site’s buffer zone, a new road (A14) was built outside the property and a curtain of trees was planted to reduce possible pollution impacts on the monument.

Authenticity

The Monastery of Batalha preserves its authenticity by maintaining its original plans, materials and social and religious significance. The property’s most relevant attributes have been preserved and even reinforced as far as quality is concerned. Conservation and restoration of all stained glass windows and mural paintings in the Royal Cloister and in the Sacristy have been carried out according to the Nara Document on Authenticity. Besides, the Escola Nacional de Artes e Ofícios da Batalha (School of Arts and Crafts) has been supllying skilled workers both for the conservation and restoration of stone elements and stained glass windows.

Ecclesiastical authorities have contributed to the preservation and enhancement of this property, by using the church for religious ceremonies.

Since 9 April 1921, the Chapter House has a permanent guard of honour and is lit by a lamp symbolizing the homeland flame in homage to the Unknown Soldier protected by the mutilated “Christ of the Trenches”.

Protection and management requirements

The Monastery of Batalha was classified as a national monument by a Decree published in the government Journal no. 14 of 17 January 1907.

In order to ensure enforcement of the Law establishing the bases for the policy and system of rules for protection and enhancement of cultural heritage (Law no. 107 of 8 September 2001), Decree no. 140 of 15 June 2009 established the legal framework for studies, projects, reports, works or interventions upon classified cultural assets. It established, as a rule, the need for a previous and systematic assessment, monitoring and weighing of any works that are likely to affect the site’s integrity so as to avoid any disfigurement, dilapidation, loss of physical features or authenticity. This is ensured by appropriate and strict planning, by qualified staff, of any techniques, methodologies and resources to be used for implementation of works on cultural properties.

Furthermore, there is a responsible management policy that has focused on environmental solutions and on maintaining open dialogue and building partnerships with, among others, the municipality so as to overcome the negative effects of undue use of the monument’s surrounding area.

Similarly, according to Decree no. 309 of 23 October 2009, buffer zones are considered special protection zones benefitting from adequate restrictions for the protection and enhancement of cultural properties.

To preserve the authenticity and integrity of the whole monumental complex within a work plan involving the local community is the key management goal. It also takes into account UNESCO’s recommendations in the State of Conservation Report from 1990, namely conservation measures that have been taken to solve the problem of distortion of the lead work and broken panes in the stained-glass windows.

All the interventions that have been implemented or are foreseen comply with current legislation, as well as with strict technical and scientific criteria. There is a special focus on the treatment and rehabilitation of the area surrounding the monument, as these works will be ensured by local organisations involving both the municipality and the local community.

Management of this complex is ensured by the decentralized services of the Directorate General for Cultural Heritage (DGPC), the central administration department responsible for cultural heritage. Conservation, enhancement and safeguarding measures are ensured by DGPC that is responsible for drawing up an annual programme and implementing it so as to secure the future of the monument.

Furthermore, an interpretation centre has been established. Today visitors have access to more areas and to new information that will ensure a better and more integrated knowledge of the World Heritage property.