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Fatehpur Sikri

Fatehpur Sikri

Built during the second half of the 16th century by the Emperor Akbar, Fatehpur Sikri (the City of Victory) was the capital of the Mughal Empire for only some 10 years. The complex of monuments and temples, all in a uniform architectural style, includes one of the largest mosques in India, the Jama Masjid.

Fatehpur Sikri

La « ville de la victoire », construite dans la seconde moitié du XVIe siècle par l'empereur Akbar, ne fut la capitale de l'Empire moghol que pendant une dizaine d'années. C'est un ensemble architectural homogène avec de nombreux monuments et temples, dont une des plus grandes mosquées de l'Inde, Jama Masjid.

فاتهبور سكري

لم تكن مدينةُ النصر التي شيّدها الإمبراطور أكبر في النصف الثاني من القرن السادس عشر عاصمةَ الإمبراطورية المغولية إلا لعشرات السنوات. وهي تشكّل مجموعةً هندسية متناسقة مع الكثير من النصب التذكارية والمعابد التي يندرج بينها مسجد جاما وهو أحد أهمّ مساجد الهند.

source: UNESCO/ERI


法塔赫布尔西格里(胜利之城),由阿克巴皇帝(Emperor Akbar)于16世纪后半期而建,它作为莫卧儿王国的首都只有约十年的历史。城中的整体建筑和寺庙都遵循统一的建筑风格,其中包括印度最大的清真寺渣墨清真寺(Jama Masjid)。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Древний город Фатехпур-Сикри

Фатехпур-Сикри (или «Город Победы»), построенный во второй половине XVI в. императором Акбаром, был столицей империи Моголов всего около 10 лет. Комплекс памятников и храмов, выполненных в едином архитектурном стиле, включает одну из крупнейших в Индии мечетей – Джама-Масджид.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Fatehpur Sikri

Construida por el emperador Akbar en la segunda mitad del siglo XVI, Fatehpur Sikri, la “ciudad de la victoria”, fue la capital del Imperio Mogol durante diez años solamente. El sitio comprende un conjunto arquitectónico homogéneo con numerosos monumentos y templos, entre los que figura la Jama Masjid, una de las mezquitas más grandes de la India.

source: UNESCO/ERI


source: NFUAJ

Fatehpur Sikri

Deze ‘Stad der Overwinning’ werd gebouwd tijdens de tweede helft van de 16e eeuw door keizer Akbar en was gedurende veertien jaar de hoofdstad van het Mogolrijk. Het monumenten- en tempelcomplex dat in een uniforme architectonische stijl is gebouwd bevat één van India’s grootste moskeeën: de Jama Masjid. Fatehpur Sikri is een buitengewoon eerbetoon aan de Mogol beschaving aan het eind van de 16e eeuw en een uniek voorbeeld van architectonische gebouwen van uiterst hoge kwaliteit uit de periode 1571 tot 1585. De vormgeving en indeling van de gebouwen had grote invloed op de ontwikkeling van de Indiase stedenbouw, met name in Shahjahanabad (Oud Delhi).

Source: unesco.nl

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Diwan-i-Khas, Hall of private Audience of the Emperor Akbar, Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, India, UNESCO World Heritage Site Diwan-i-Khas, Hall des audiences privées de l’Empereur Akbar, Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, Inde, Site du Patrimoine Mondial de l’UNESCO Diwan-i-Khas, Die private Audienzhalle, Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh, Indien, Welterbe der UNESCO © M & G Therin-Weise
Long Description

Fatehpur Sikri bears exceptional testimony to the Mughal civilization at the end of the 16th century. It offers a unique example of architectural ensembles of very high quality constructed between 1571 and 1585. Its form and layout strongly influenced the evolution of Indian town planning, notably at Shahjahanabad (Old Delhi).

The 'City of Victory' had only an ephemeral existence as the capital of the Mughal empire. The Emperor Akbar (1556-1605) decided to construct it in 1571, on the same site where the birth of his son, the future Jahangir, was predicted by the wise Shaikh Salim Chisti (1480-1572). The work, supervised by the great Mughal himself, was completed in 1573. In 1585, however, Akbar abandoned Fatehpur Sikri to fight against the Afghan tribes and choose a new capital, Lahore. Fatehpur Sikri was to be the seat of the great Mughal court only once more for three months in 1619, when Jahangir sought refuge there from the plague that devastated Agra. The site was then finally abandoned, until its archaeological exploration in 1892.

This capital without a future, some 40 km from Agra was, however, considerably more than the fancy of a sovereign during the 14 years of its existence. The city, which the English traveller Ralph Fitch considered in 1585 as 'considerably larger than London and more populous', comprised a series of palaces, public buildings and mosques, as well as living areas for the court, the army, servants of the king and for an entire population whose history has not been recorded.

Only one tiny part of the city (where the large buildings are concentrated) has been until now, studied, visited and relatively well preserved. Fatehpur Sikri, constructed on a rocky plateau, south-east of an artificial lake, created for the occasion and today partially dried up, is bounded on three sides by a 6 km wall, fortified by towers and pierced by seven gates (the best preserved is the Gate of Agra, the second from the north). This spacious enclosure defines the limits of the new foundation rather than assuring its defence.

The majority of the important monuments are found to the north of the road from Gaza to Agra; constructed of red sandstone, they form a homogeneous group, even if the eclecticism of their style is evident and is based on borrowings from Hindu, Persian and Indo-Muslim traditions. Among the numerous palaces, gazebos, pavilions, etc., may be cited in particular:

Diwan-i-Am, the Hall of Public Audience, is encircled by a series of porticos which are broken up by the insertion of the imperial box where Akbar, surrounded by his ministers and officers meted out justice. This box communicates directly with Daulat Khana (Imperial Palace), flanked to the north by Diwan-i-Kas (Hall of Private Audience), called the 'Jewel House', a monument known for its central plan, which comprises an extraordinary capital surmounted by a circular balcony: the 'throne'.

Other monuments of exceptional quality are the Ranch Mahal, whose elevation of four recessed storeys recalls certain Buddhist temples, the pavilion of Anup Talao, or the Turkish Sultana, the palace of Jodh Bai, the palace of Birbal, the caravanserai and the problematic 'stables'.

Owing to the piety of Akbar, many religious and votive monuments were constructed at Fatehpur Sikri. The great mosque (Jama Masjid), one of the most spacious in India (165 m by 133 m) could accommodate some 10,000 faithful; it was completed in 1571-72 and according to the dedicatory inscription deserves no less respect than Mecca. It incorporates, in the centre of the court, the tomb of Shaikh Salim, an extraordinary Christian masterpiece of sculpted decoration, further embellished under the reign of Jahangir.

To the south of the court, the Buland Damaza, completed in 1575, commemorating the victories (the taking of Gujarat in 1572) to which the city, their monumental symbol, owes its existence and its name.