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Ellora Caves

Ellora Caves

These 34 monasteries and temples, extending over more than 2 km, were dug side by side in the wall of a high basalt cliff, not far from Aurangabad, in Maharashtra. Ellora, with its uninterrupted sequence of monuments dating from A.D. 600 to 1000, brings the civilization of ancient India to life. Not only is the Ellora complex a unique artistic creation and a technological exploit but, with its sanctuaries devoted to Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, it illustrates the spirit of tolerance that was characteristic of ancient India.

Grottes d'Ellora

Trente-quatre monastères et temples ont été creusés en succession serrée dans la paroi d'une haute falaise basaltique, non loin d'Aurangabad, contribuant à faire revivre une brillante civilisation ancienne dans une séquence ininterrompue de monuments datables de 600 à 1000. L'ensemble d'Ellora est une réalisation artistique unique et un tour de force technique. Avec ses sanctuaires consacrés respectivement au bouddhisme, au brahmanisme et au jaïnisme, il illustre l'esprit de tolérance caractéristique de l'Inde ancienne.

كُهف إلورا

تمّ حفر أربعة وثلاثين ديراً ومعبداً تباعاً في جدار جُرف عال بزلتيّ لا يبعد عن أورانغباد، مما ساهم في إعادة إنعاش حضارة لامعة قديمة في تسلسل متواصل من النصب التذكارية العائدة لفترة تتراوح بين عامي600 و1000. وتشكّل مجموعة إلورا إنجازاً فنياً فريداً من نوعه وقوةً تقنيةً تتطلّب الجهد. ويجسد الكهف بمعابده المخصّصة على التوالي للبوذية والبرهمانية واليانية (إحدى الديانات الهندية القديمة) روح التسامح التي تميزت بها الهند القديمة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

埃洛拉石窟群

埃洛拉石窟群位于马哈拉施特拉邦(Maharashtra),离奥兰加巴德不远。高高的陡峭玄武岩壁上,34座洞穴庙宇被开凿出来,一座挨一座,延伸2000多米。这些保存完好、排列有序的遗迹可追溯到公元600年至1000年,它们生动完好地再现了古印度文明。埃洛拉石窟群不仅艺术造型独特,技术水准高超,而且作为佛教、婆罗门教和耆那教的圣殿,它们是古代印度容忍、宽恕特性的精神体现。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Пещерные храмы в Эллоре

Эти 34 монастыря и храма, растянувшиеся на расстояние более 2 км, высечены друг за другом в стене высокого базальтового обрыва, недалеко от города Аурангабада в штате Махараштра. Благодаря Эллоре, с ее непрерывной преемственностью в формировании наследия в период 600-1000 гг., следы древней индийской цивилизации дошли до наших дней. Эллора – это не только комплекс уникального художественного творчества и технических достижений. Это также иллюстрация духа терпимости, характерного для древней Индии, что подтверждается расположенными рядом святилищами буддизма, индуизма и джайнизма.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Grutas de Ellora

Situados cerca de Aurangabad (Estado de Maharashtra), los 34 monasterios y templos de este sitio se alinean, uno junto a otro, a lo largo de 2 km, en la pared del alto farallón basáltico en la que fueron excavados. El sitio hace revivir la antigua civilización de la India gracias a la secuencia ininterrumpida de sus monumentos, que datan de los siglos VII a XI. La realización de este conjunto monumental de calidad artística excepcional fue una verdadera proeza técnica. Con sus santuarios budistas, brahmánicos y jainistas, Ellora ilustra también el espíritu de tolerancia característico de la India antigua. Su ininterrumpida secuencia de creación, que se extiende desde el año 600 al 1000, es una brillante muestra de esa civilización.

source: UNESCO/ERI

エローラ石窟群

source: NFUAJ

Grotten van Ellora

In een gebied niet ver van Aurangabad in de staat Maharashtra, zijn 34 kloosters en tempels uit een hoge basaltrots gehakt. Het gebied beslaat een lengte van iets meer dan 2 kilometer. Deze grotten van Ellora zijn het bewijs van unieke artistieke creaties en technische hoogstandjes. Daarnaast illustreren ze met hun heiligdommen gewijd aan het boeddhisme, hindoeïsme en jaïnisme ook de tolerantie die zo kenmerkend was voor het India van toen. Ellora brengt met haar ononderbroken opeenvolging van monumenten daterend van 600 tot 1.000 voor Christus, de beschaving van het klassieke India weer tot leven.

Source: unesco.nl

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Long Description

The Ellora Caves not only bear witness to three great religions (Buddhism, Brahminism and Jainism) but they also illustrate the spirit of tolerance, characteristic of ancient India, which permitted these three religions to establish their sanctuaries and their communities in a single place, which thus served to reinforce its universal value. The caves, with their uninterrupted sequence of from 600 to 1,000 monuments, bring to life again the civilization of ancient India.

These 34 monasteries and temples, extending over more than 2 km, were dug side by side in the wall of a high basalt cliff, not far from Aurangabad, in Maharashtra. Ellora, with its uninterrupted sequence of monuments dating from AD 600 to 1000, brings the civilization of ancient India to life. Not only is the Ellora complex a unique artistic creation and a technological exploit but, with its sanctuaries devoted to Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, it illustrates the spirit of tolerance that was characteristic of ancient India.

This rupestral ensemble constitute one of the most beautiful expressions of the art of the Indian Middle Ages; they are noteworthy as three major Indian religions have laid joint claim to the caves peacefully since they were created. These breathtaking caves are definitely worth visiting for their remarkable reliefs, sculptures and architecture. It is not, like that of Ajanta, the expression of a single belief; rather it is the product of the three principal religions of ancient India.

Progressing from south to north along the cliff, one discovers successively the twelve caves of the Buddhist group, which appear to be the oldest (between c. 600 and 800) and comprise monasteries and a single large temple (cave 10); then the caves of the Brahmin group (c. 600 to 900) which are no doubt the best known of Ellora with the 'Cavern of the Ten Avatars' (cave 15) and especially the Kailasha Temple (cave 16), an enormous complex, most likely undertaken during the reign of Krishna I (757-83); and, finally, the Jain group (caves 30-34) whose sanctuaries were created by the sect of the Digambara towards AD 800-1000, The Jain caves, the last to be excavated, drew their inspiration from the art already existing at Ellora: cave 32 recalls by certain of its dispositions the Kailasha Temple.

The Buddhist Caves were excavated between the 5th and the 7th centuries AD, when the Mahayana sects were flourishing in the region; among these cave 5 is the largest. Cave 10 is a chaitya hall and is popularly known as 'Visvakarma'. It has a highly ornamental facade provided with a gallery and in the chaitya hall there is a beautiful image of Buddha set on a stupa. The historical value of cave 12 or Tin Tala lies in the fact that human hands built a three-storeyed building from rock with such painstaking skill that even the floors and the ceiling are smooth and levelled. Tin Tala cave is a monastery-cum-chapel, with cells. It dates to the Rashtrakuta period in the mid-8th century.

The Brahmin caves are mostly Saivite. Kailasa (cave 16) is a remarkable example of rock-cut temples in India on account of its striking proportion; elaborate workmanship architectural content and sculptural ornamentation. It is said that cave 16 have been started by the Rashtrakuta king, Krishna I, and it is dedicated to Shiva and named after his mountain home in the Himalaya, the snow-peak Kailasa. The whole temple consists of a shrine with lingam at the rear of the hall with Dravidian sikhara, a flat-roofed mandapa supported by sixteen pillars, a separate porch for Nandi surrounded by an open court entered through a low gopura. The grand sculpture of Ravana attempting to lift Mount Kailasa, the abode of Siva, with his full might is a landmark in Indian art.

The Jain Caves are massive, well-proportioned, decorated and mark the last phase of the activity at Ellora.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC