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Khajuraho Group of Monuments

Khajuraho Group of Monuments

The temples at Khajuraho were built during the Chandella dynasty, which reached its apogee between 950 and 1050. Only about 20 temples remain; they fall into three distinct groups and belong to two different religions – Hinduism and Jainism. They strike a perfect balance between architecture and sculpture. The Temple of Kandariya is decorated with a profusion of sculptures that are among the greatest masterpieces of Indian art.

Ensemble monumental de Khajuraho

Œuvre de la dynastie des Chandella, qui connut son apogée entre 950 et 1050, les temples de Khajuraho dont il ne subsiste plus qu'une vingtaine se répartissent en trois groupes distincts. Ils appartiennent à deux religions différentes, l'hindouisme et le jaïnisme et réalisent une synthèse exemplaire entre l'architecture et la sculpture. C'est ainsi que le temple de Kandariya est décoré d'une profusion de sculptures qui comptent parmi les plus grands chefs-d'œuvre de la plastique indienne.

مجمّع نصب خاجوراهو

تتوزع معابد خاجوراهو التي تحمل آثار سلاسة شانديلا التي بلغت أوجّها بين عامي 950 و1050 والتي لم يبق منها إلا حوالي عشرين، على ثلاث مجمّعات منفصلة. وتنتمي إلى ديانتين مختلفتين، الهندوسية واليانية، وتحقّق توليفاً نموذجياً بين الهندسة والنحت. وبذلك إنّ معبد قندريا مزيّن بعدد كبير من المنحوتات التي تُعتبر من أهمّ تُحف الفن التشكيلي الهندي.

source: UNESCO/ERI

卡杰拉霍建筑群

卡杰拉霍庙宇群建于章德拉王朝,其于公元950年至1050年间达到统治的鼎盛时期。目前仅存有约20座庙宇,它们分为三组不同的群体,分属于两个不同的宗教印度教和耆那教。在这里,建筑与雕塑达到了完美的平衡。著名的坎达里亚寺庙饰有大量内容丰富、绚丽多姿的雕塑,是印度艺术中的经典之作。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Памятники Кхаджурахо

Храмы Кхаджурахо были сооружены во времена династии Чанделла, апогей власти которой пришелся на 950-1050 гг. Здесь сохранилось порядка 20 храмов, которые образуют три отчетливых группы и принадлежат к двум различным религиям – индуизму и джайнизму, демонстрируя органичное сочетание между архитектурными формами и скульптурой. Храм Кандарья декорирован множеством скульптур, которые признаны одними из величайших шедевров индийского искусства.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Conjunto monumental de Khajuraho

Este conjunto monumental está formado por tres grupos diferenciados de templos construidos en el periodo de apogeo de la dinastía de los Chandella (950-1050). Sólo subsisten unos veinte pertenecientes a dos religiones distintas, el hinduismo y el jainismo. Su característica principal es el perfecto equilibrio logrado entre las formas arquitectónicas y las esculturales. El templo de Kandariya está ornamentado con un gran número de esculturas que figuran entre las más grandes obras maestras del arte indio.

source: UNESCO/ERI

カジュラーホの建造物群

source: NFUAJ

Monumentengroep van Khajuraho

De tempels van Khajuraho werden gebouwd tijdens de Chandella dynastie, die haar hoogtepunt bereikte tussen 950 en 1050. Khajuraho is één van de hoofdsteden van de Chandella heersers. Er zijn slechts 22 tempels overgebleven van de oorspronkelijke 85. Deze worden ingedeeld in de westelijke, oostelijke en zuidelijke groepen, met de belangrijkste groep tempels in het westelijke gebied. De monumenten behoren tot twee verschillende religies: het hindoeïsme en jaïnisme. De tempels vormen een perfecte balans tussen architectuur en sculptuur. De tempel van Kandariya is versierd met een overdaad aan beelden, die behoren tot de grootste meesterwerken van de Indiase kunst.

Source: unesco.nl

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Khajuraho Group of Monuments © Aneta Ribarska
Long Description

The complex of Khajuraho represents a unique artistic creation, as much for its highly original architecture as for the sculpted decor of a surprising quality made up of a mythological repertory of numerous scenes of amusements of which not the least known are the scenes, susceptible to various interpretations, sacred or profane.

Khajuraho is one of the capitals of the Chandella rulers, a dynasty of Rajput origin which came into power at the beginning of the 10th century, and reached its apogee between 950 and 1050. Of the 85 temples which were constructed at Khajuraho during the Chandella period (and which were still resplendent: when the great traveller Ibn Battuta noted them in 1335), 22 still exist, disseminated within an area of about 6 km2.

As, monuments of two distinct religions, Brahminism and Jainism, the temples of Khajuraho are nonetheless distinguished by a common typology: they comprise an elevated substructure, over which rises the body of the richly decorated building, the 'jangha', covered with several registers of sculpted panels on to which open-work galleries are opened. This is crowned by a series of bundled towers with curvilinear contours, the Sikharas.

The highest are found over the sanctuary of the divinity. Each of these towers, which is characteristic of the temples in the Nagera style, symbolizes the 'cosmic mountain', Mount Kailasha. The typical plan comprises an entrance, a large hypostyle hall (mandapa), a dark sanctuary and finally various annexes.

The most important group of monuments is massed in the western zone, not far from the archaeological museum, including the temples of Varaha, Lakshmana, Matangeshwara, Kandariya, Mahadeva Chitragupta, Chopra Tank, Parvati, Vishwanatha and Nandi. But the east and south groups also comprise noteworthy complexes (the temples of Ghantai, Parshvanath, Adinath, Shantinath, Dulhadeo, Chaturbhuja).

Yasovarman (AD 954) built the temple of Vishnu, now famous as Lakshmana temple; this is an ornate and evolved example of its time proclaiming the prestige of the Chandellas. The Visvanatha, Parsvanatha and Vaidyanatha temples belong to the time of King Dhanga, the successor of Yasovarman.

The Jagadambi, Chitragupta, are noteworthy among the western group of royal temples of Khajuraho. The largest and grandest temple of Khajuraho is the immortal Kandariya Mahadeva which is attributed to King Ganda (1017-29).

Greatly influenced by the Tantric school of thought, the Chandela kings promoted various Tantric doctrines through royal monuments, including temples. Sculptors of Khajuraho depicted all aspects of life. The society of the time believed in dealing frankly and openly with all aspects of life, including sex. Sex is important because Tantric cosmos is divided into the male and female principle. Male principle has the form and potential, female has the energy. According to Hindu and Tantric philosophy, one can not achieve anything without the other, as they manifest themselves in all aspects of the universe. Nothing can exist without their cooperation and coexistence. In accordance with ancient treaties on architecture, erotic depictions were reserved for specific parts of the temples only. The rest of the temple was profusely covered with other aspects of life, secular and spiritual.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC