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Pirin National Park

Pirin National Park

Spread over an area of over 27,000 ha, at an altitude between 1008 and 2914 m in the Pirin Mountains, southwest Bulgaria, the site comprises diverse limestone mountain landscapes with glacial lakes, waterfalls, caves and predominantly coniferous forests. It was added to the World Heritage List in 1983. The extension now covers an area of around 40,000 ha in the Pirin Mountains, and overlaps with the Pirin National Park, except for two areas developed for tourism (skiing). The dominant part of the extension is high mountain territory over 2000m in altitude, and covered mostly by alpine meadows, rocky screes and summits.

Parc national de Pirin

Sur une étendue de plus de 27 000 ha, à une altitude de 1 008 à 2 914 m dans le massif du Pirin, dans le sud-ouest de la Bulgarie, le parc présente un paysage karstique des Balkans, avec ses lacs, ses cascades, ses grottes et ses forêts de pins. Il a été ajouté à la Liste du patrimoine mondial en 1983. L'extension inclut désormais l'ensemble du Parc national de Pirin, soient près de 40 000 ha, à l'exception de deux zones touristiques (ski). La partie principale de cette extension est une zone de hautes montagnes de plus de 2000 mètres d'altitude comprenant surtout des prairies alpines, des éboulis rocheux et des sommets.

مرتع بيرين الوطني

على امتداد يصل إلى أكثر من 27 هكتاراً، وارتفاع يتراوح بين 1008 و2914 متراً، في الكتلة الجبلية في بيرين، الواقعة في جنوب غرب بلغاريا، يمثل مرتع بيرين الوطني منظراً مكوناً من الحجر الجيري (الكارست) للبلقان، بما يضمه من بحيرات، وشلالات، ومغاور ، وغابات الصنوبر. وقد أُدرج هذا المرتع في قائمة التراث العالمي في عام 1983. وتشمل عمليات التوسيع الآن جملة مراتع بيرين الوطنية، أي مساحة تبلغ نحو 40000 هكتار، فيما عدا منطقتين سياحيتين. ويشمل الجزء الرئيسي من عمليات التوسيع منطقة جبال يبلغ ارتفاعها أكثر من 2000 متراً، وتضم، على وجه الخصوص، مروجاً جبلية، وركاماً صخرية وقِمماً.

source: UNESCO/ERI

皮林国家公园

皮林公家公园位于保加利亚西南部的皮林山脉,占地2万7千多公顷,海拔高度介于1008米与2 914米之间。公园内景观主要为巴尔干喀斯特地形,冰川湖泊、瀑布、洞穴和松林等夹杂其间。这一遗址于1983列入《世界遗产名录》。扩展之后,将包括除了两个旅游区以外的整个皮林国家公园,占地约4万公顷。扩展的部分主要是一个海拔超过2000米的高山区,景观以高山草甸、岩屑堆和山峰为主。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Национальный парк Пирин

Раскинувшийся в горах Пирин на юго-западе Болгарии на площади более чем в 27 000 га и на высоте 1 008-2 914 м, этот парк характеризуется балканским карстовым ландшафтом с его озерами, водопадами , пещерами и сосновыми лесами. Он был включен в Список всемирного наследия в 1983 году. Расширенный объект – это теперь весь Национальный парк Пирин, т.е. около 40000 га, за исключением двух туристических зон (специально выделенных для лыжного спорта). Его основная часть – это горный район, расположенный на высоте свыше 2000 метров и состоящий, в основном, из альпийских лугов, каменистых склонов и горных вершин.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Parque Nacional de Pirin

Situado en el macizo montañoso de Pirin, al sudoeste de Bulgaria, este parque se extiende por más de 27.400 hectáreas, a una altitud que oscila entre 1.008 y 2.914 metros. Su paisaje es típico de las zonas kársticas de los Balcanes, con sus lagos, cascadas, grutas y bosques de coníferas. El sitio se inscribió en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial en 1983 y con su extensión actual abarca ahora unas 40.000 hectáreas de los montes de Pirin, esto es, la totalidad del parque nacional, exceptuadas dos zonas turísticas dedicadas al esquí. La zona añadida es en su mayor parte un macizo montañoso con praderas alpinas, desprendimientos rocosos y picos que culminan a más de 2.000 metros de altura.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Nationaal park Pirin

Dit Werelderfgoed heeft nu een oppervlakte van ongeveer 40.000 hectare in het Pirin gebergte, in zuidwest Bulgarije en is een uitbreiding van een eerdere inschrijving op de Werelderfgoedlijst van 27.000 hectare dat het Nationaal Park Pirin omvat. Het gebied ligt op een hoogte tussen de 1.008 en 2.914 meter. Het uit kalksteen bestaande berglandschap kent meer dan 70 gletsjermeren en veel glaciale landvormen met watervallen, rotsachtige leistenen en grotten. De bossen worden gedomineerd door coniferen en de hoger gelegen gebieden herbergen alpenweiden onder de toppen. Er komen veel inheemse en relicte soorten voor die representatief zijn voor de flora in de Balkan tijdens het pleistoceen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The World Heritage property covers an area of around 40,000 ha in the Pirin Mountains, southwest Bulgaria, and overlaps with the undeveloped areas of Pirin National Park. The diverse limestone mountain landscapes of the property include over 70 glacial lakes and a range of glacial landforms, with many waterfalls, rocky screes and caves. Forests are dominated by conifers, and the higher areas harbour alpine meadows below the summits. The property includes a range of endemic and relict species that are representative of the Balkan Pleistocene flora.

Criterion (vii): The mountain scenery of Pirin National Park is of exceptional beauty. The high mountain peaks and crags contrast with meadows, rivers and waterfalls and provide the opportunity to experience the aesthetics of a Balkan mountain landscape. The ability to experience remoteness and naturalness is an important attribute of the Outstanding Universal Value of the property.

Criterion (viii): The principal earth science values of the property relate to its glacial geomorphology, demonstrated through a range of features including cirques, deep valleys and over 70 glacial lakes. The mountains of the property show a variety of forms and have been developed in several different rock types. Functioning natural processes allow for study of the continued evolution of the landforms of the property, and help to understand other upland areas in the region.

Criterion (ix): The property is a good example of the continuing evolution of flora, as evidenced by a number of endemic and relict species, and the property also protects an example of a functioning ecosystem that is representative of the important natural ecosystems of the Balkan uplands. Pirin’s natural coniferous forests include Macedonian Pine and Bosnian Pine, with many old growth trees. In total, there are 1,315 species of vascular plants, about one third of Bulgaria’s flora, including 86 Balkan endemics, 17 Bulgarian endemics and 18 local endemics. The fauna of Pirin National Park includes 45 mammal species, including brown bear, wolf and pine marten, and 159 bird species. Pirin is also home to eight species of amphibians, eleven species of reptiles and six fish species. Although the forests are affected by some historical use, the natural functioning of the ecosystem ensures the protection of its regionally significant biodiversity values.

Integrity

The original inscription of the property in 1983 proved to be inadequate in representing and maintaining the Outstanding Universal Value of Pirin, but an extension in 2010 has addressed the issues to the best possible degree and represents the minimum area of Pirin National Park that can be considered to correspond to the requirements of Outstanding Universal Value set out in the World Heritage Convention.

The National Park is clearly defined from the point of view of its mountainous nature and ecology, and the boundaries of the property are of sufficient size to capture the natural values of Pirin. Adequate boundaries have been established through the extension of the initially inscribed property, to include the most remote areas of the interior of the National Park, and exclude adjacent areas that are not compatible with World Heritage status due to impacts on integrity from ski development. The values of the property as extended retain the attributes of a natural landscape but they closely adjoin areas subject to intensive tourism development that are a risk to the integrity of the property.

Protection and management requirements

The property is covered by national legislation which should ensure strong national protection of the values of the property, including the prevention of encroachment from adjoining development. It is essential that this legislation is rigorously enforced and is respected by all levels of government that have responsibilities in the area. The property also has an effective and functioning management plan, provided its implementation can be ensured through adequate resources to both maintain the necessary staffing levels and undertake the necessary management activities to protect and manage the property. A system of regular monitoring of the natural values of Pirin and ongoing programmes to maintain habitats and landforms in their natural state, avoid disturbance and other impacts on wildlife, and to preserve the aesthetic values of the property are required.

The World Heritage property has long been subject to tourism pressure, largely caused by the development of ski facilities and ski runs. Small ski areas were developed at Bansko, Dobrinishte and Kulinoto in the 1980s and 1990s. Activities such as night skiing, off-piste skiing and heliskiing are activities which may affect the values and integrity of the property and require rigorous control. Bansko, adjoining the property, has become one of the most rapidly developing towns in Bulgaria with hotels and holiday resorts constructed literally on the park boundary. Tourism development within and around the property has not been effectively controlled in the past including some areas that were developed within the property and caused significant damage. The management plan for the property needs to ensure a long-term priority for the protection of the natural values of Pirin, and to guard against any encroachments and impacts within the property from skiing, sporting events or other inappropriate development. Equally the planning documents that are created by national, regional and local authorities need to similarly ensure the protection of the natural values of the property, and also integrate the benefits it provides as a natural landscape to the surrounding area.

Other threats to the property include illegal logging, poaching and the use of snow mobiles and quad bikes. These uses require close monitoring, management and the enforcement of effective regulations. The management of visitor use to both prevent negative impacts and provide opportunities to experience the values of the property in a sustainable way is also an essential long term requirement for this property.

Long Description

Extending over an area of 27,400 ha and lying at an altitude of 1,008-2,914 m in the Pirin mountains, south-west Bulgaria, Pirin National Park has a limestone Balkan landscape, with lakes, waterfalls, caves and pine forests. The rugged mountains, with some 70 glacial lakes scattered throughout them, are home to hundreds of endemic and rare species, many of which are representative of the Balkan Pleistocene flora. The mountains also have diverse and unique landscapes of great aesthetic value.

Pirin Mountain stretches from north-west to south-east between the valleys of the Strouma and Mesta rivers. There are many rivers and waterfalls. Winter in the upper parts is cold and long with snow cover remaining for five to eight months. Summer is cool and short.

The presence of limestone rocks, the southerly position of the range and close proximity to the Aegean, coupled with its relative isolation, have made Pirin Mountain an important refuge for many species. Forests in the park are mainly coniferous with endemic Macedonian pine being widespread and forming the timberline in the granite part of the mountain. Endemic Bossnian pine occurs in the highest zone of the karst area. Unique stands of Pinus peuce and Pinus leucodermis , up to 250-300 years old and 30-45 m high, are found in Baiouvi Doupki-Djindjiritsa Reserve. Some individual Pinus leucodermis trees are over 500 years old. Silver fir, Austrian pine, spruce, Scots pine and beech form a mixed coniferous forest type.

Generally, the timberline has developed as a result of human interference over a long period and descends as low as 2,000 m, but in some places reaches 2,200-2,300 m. In the subalpine zone there are thickets of dwarf mountain pine and Juniperus sibirica . Above 2,400-2,600 m is a layer of alpine meadows, stony slopes, screes, rocks, etc.

The flora of Pirin, comprising as it does many rare species, is of great interest and beauty. One of the most active flora speciation in Bulgaria is situated in the limestone part of the mountain. Pirin has a mixture of central European, Alpine, Balkan mountain and sub-Mediterranean species, but in addition there are about 30 local endemic species.

There is a wide variety of animal species including many endemic species and glacial relicts among the invertebrate fauna. Threatened bird and mammal species include brown bear, grey wolf, pine marten, rock marten, polecat, badger, otter, wild cat, red deer, roe deer, wild boar, Balkan chamois, golden eagle, capercaillie, hazel grouse, eagle owl, black woodpecker and three-toed woodpecker.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

In 1963 Vikhren National Park (6,212ha) was established in the northern part of the Pirin mountains under Decree No. 3074 of 6 November 1962 of the Committee of Forestry and Forestry Management. In 1976 it was enlarged 27,OOOha and renamed Pirin National Park (Decree No. 1036 of 3 March 1976, Ministry of Forestry). Pirin NP was enlarged to 40,060ha in 1987 (Decree No. 1036 of 17 November, Committee of Environmental Protection at the Council of Ministers. Baevi Doubki Natural Reserve was established in 1934, extended in 1976 and renamed Baevi Doupki - Dzindzeritza (2,873ha) in 1979. It was declared a biosphere reserve in 1977.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation