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Palace and Park of Fontainebleau

Palace and Park of Fontainebleau

Used by the kings of France from the 12th century, the medieval royal hunting lodge of Fontainebleau, standing at the heart of a vast forest in the Ile-de-France, was transformed, enlarged and embellished in the 16th century by François I, who wanted to make a 'New Rome' of it. Surrounded by an immense park, the Italianate palace combines Renaissance and French artistic traditions.

Palais et parc de Fontainebleau

Utilisée par les rois de France dès le XIIe siècle, la résidence de chasse de Fontainebleau, au cœur d'une grande forêt de l'Île-de-France, fut transformée, agrandie et embellie au XVIe siècle par François Ier qui voulait en faire une « nouvelle Rome ». Entouré d'un vaste parc, le château, inspiré de modèles italiens, fut un lieu de rencontre entre l'art de la Renaissance et les traditions françaises.

حديقة وقصر فونتانبلو

عمل الملك فرنسوا الأول على تحويل وتوسيع وتزيين مقرّ صيد فونتانبلو الذي استخدمه ملوك فرنسا منذ القرن الثاني عشر ووالواقع وسط غابة شاسعة في جزيرة فرنسا، وقد أراد أن يجعل منه روما جديدة. وتحوّل القصر الذي تحيط به حديقة شاسعة والمستوحى من نماذج إيطالية إلى مركز تلاقي بين فن النهضة والعادات الفرنسية.

source: UNESCO/ERI

奥莫低谷

奥莫低谷位于图阿卡那湖(Lake Turkana)附近,是世界上著名的史前文化遗址。在这里发现的许多化石,特别是人类股薄肌(Homo gracilis),对人类进化研究具有重要意义。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Дворец и парк Фонтенбло

Существовавшая с XII в. средневековая королевская охотничья резиденция Фонтенбло, находящаяся посреди обширных лесов в регионе Иль-де-Франс, была перестроена, расширена и украшена в XVI в. Франциском I, который хотел сделать ее "Новым Римом". Дворец, окруженный огромным парком и выполненный в итальянском стиле, сочетает в себе черты Возрождения и французские художественные традиции.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Palacio y parque de Fontainebleau

Situado en el corazón de un gran bosque de la región de Île-de-France, este palacio fue en sus orígenes un pabellón de caza utilizado por los monarcas franceses desde el siglo XII. En el siglo XVI, el rey Francisco I lo transformo, amplió y embelleció, porque pretendía hacer de él una “nueva Roma”. Su edificio de inspiración italiana, rodeado por un vasto parque, es el resultado del encuentro entre el arte del Renacimiento y las tradiciones artísticas francesas.

source: UNESCO/ERI

フォンテーヌブローの宮殿と庭園

source: NFUAJ

Paleis en park van Fontainebleau

Het middeleeuwse koninklijke jachthuis van Fontainebleau werd vanaf de 12e eeuw gebruikt door de koningen van Frankrijk. Het staat in het hart van een uitgestrekt bos in de regio Île-de-France. In de 16e eeuw heeft François I het koninklijke complex getransformeerd, uitgebreid en verfraaid omdat hij er een ‘Nieuw Rome’ van wilde maken. Vanaf toen was het een van de belangrijkste en meest prestigieuze verblijfplaatsen van het Franse Hof. Het Italiaansachtige paleis is omgeven door een immens park en combineert Renaissance en Franse artistieke tradities. De architectuur en inrichting van het Paleis van Fontainebleau hebben grote invloed uitgeoefend op de artistieke evolutie in Frankrijk en Europa.

Source: unesco.nl

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Long Description

The architecture and decor of the Palace of Fontainebleau exerted considerable influence on the artistic evolution not only of France but also of Europe. François I intended to make a new Rome of this royal residence. It was in this spirit that he brought artists of renown from Italy, whose intervention marks the decisive stage in the introduction of the aesthetic formulas of the Renaissance into France.

Used by the kings of France from the 12th century, the medieval royal hunting lodge of Fontainebleau, standing at the heart of a vast forest in the Île-de-France, was transformed, enlarged and embellished in the 16th century by François I. From then on it was one of the most important and prestigious sites of the French Court. The construction of the royal palace began during the reign of François I, who in 1528 ordered an ambitious campaign of demolition and expansion of the old royal residence. Further modifications undertaken by his successors and carried out at varying degrees of intensity until the 19th century gave shape to the present complex, which nowadays consists of five courtyards, arranged irregularly and surrounded by wings of buildings and gardens.

The earliest buildings were erected between 1528 and 1540 under the supervision of master builder Gilles le Breton, who was responsible for the Cour Ovale, now located in the eastern section of the complex, and which stands on the ancient foundations.

From 1533 to 1540 Rosso Fiorentino worked on the decor of frescoes and the stucco work of the Galerie François I, achieving an ambitious iconographic programme in the Mannerist style, in which themes of monarchist propaganda were borrowed from Graeco-Roman fables and myths. Francesco Primaticcio was responsible for the casting of the most famous Romantic bronzes: those of the Cortile of the Belvedere and of the Palazzo della Valle. Primaticcio devoted the better part of his career to Fontainebleau, working on the frescoes of the Salle de Bal, the room of the Duchess d'Étampes and the Galerie d'Ulysse. Very little survives of the rooms that were decorated under Primaticcio's supervision: there are traces, however, of his exquisite and refined creations in numerous drawings and engravings, which had considerable influence on the tastes of the time. Niccolò dell'Abate collaborated with him in several of these workshops.

The memory of other famous artists is intimately connected with Fontainebleau: a Hercules of Michelangelo was raised on a plinth in the Cour de la Fontaine; Benvenuto Cellini intended his Nymphe de Fontainebleau for the Porte Dorée; Serlio drew up the plans for several parts of the palace and conceived the door for the Fontaine Belle-Eau with its rustic grotto with telamons.

By virtue of the contact with the Italian architects, painters and sculptors, French artists were led to a radical self-renewal. If Gilles le Breton seems to have escaped their influence at the beginning of the workshop, for Philibert de l'Orme and then for Jacques Androu et du Cerceau, Fontainebleau was the source of definitive revelations. The lesson of the Italian painters inspired yet another generation of artists, that of the second school of Fontainebleau, such as Toussaint Dubreuilh, Ambroise Dubois and Martin Fréminet, as the need to enlarge and decorate the immense palace created the ideal conditions for the survival of an artistic centre into the mid-17th century.

Like the buildings, the gardens of Fontainebleau also underwent major transformations over the centuries. To the east the Grand Jardin was originally composed of a series of square flower beds, criss-crossed by a canal. Later it was transformed into the Parterre du Tibre and then redesigned by Le Nôtre and gradually simplified until it attained its present-day configuration with four grassy panels surrounded by flowering borders.

Royal domicile, 'house of the centuries' - Fontainebleau has retained the imprint of every reign and every style: Henri IV, Louis XIII, Louis XV and Louis XVI paid without hesitation for the embellishment of this royal palace, which Napoleon I preferred above all the others.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC