Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum
Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum
The Hypogeum is an enormous subterranean structure excavated c. 2500 B.C., using cyclopean rigging to lift huge blocks of coralline limestone. Perhaps originally a sanctuary, it became a necropolis in prehistoric times.
Ipogée de Ħal Saflieni
Énorme structure creusée dans le sol vers 2500 av. J.-C et revêtue d'un appareil cyclopéen. avec de grandes dalles de calcaire corallien, l'hypogée, qui fut peut-être d'abord un sanctuaire, devint une nécropole dès les temps préhistoriques.
ناووس حال صافليني
إن الناووس الذي كان على الأرجح معبدًا في البداية هو بناءٌ ضخمٌ شُيّد تحت الأرض حوالى 2500 ق.م. يغطّيه جهازٌ ضخمٌ مؤلّفٌ من بلاطاتٍ كبيرةٍ من الكلس المرجاني. وقد أصبح مقبرةً كبيرةً منذ عصور ما قبل التاريخ.
Эти гигантские подземные катакомбы – «ипогей» - были вырыты в середине 3-го тысячелетия до н.э.. Для того, чтобы поднять огромные блоки кораллового известняка, при строительстве катакомб использовались особо мощные устройства. Возможно, первоначально эти постройки несли функцию святилища, однако позже оно превратилось в место захоронения – некрополь.
Hipogeo de Hal Saflieni
Este hipogeo es una enorme estructura subterránea excavada hacia el año 2500 a.C., en la que se alzan bloques colosales de caliza coralina levantados con aparejos ciclópeos. Destinado probablemente en un principio a cumplir la función de santuario, se utilizó como necrópolis desde los tiempos prehistóricos.
Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum
Het hypogeum van Ħal Saflieni is een enorm ondergronds bouwwerk dat circa 2500 voor Christus gegraven is. Hierbij is gebruik gemaakt van een reusachtig touwwerk om grote blokken koraalachtig kalksteen naar boven te halen. Was het oorspronkelijk misschien een heiligdom, in de prehistorie werd het een necropolis. Dit ‘labyrint’, zoals het vaak wordt genoemd, bestaat uit een reeks ovale kamers en cellen, te bereiken via verschillende gangen. De megalithische muren zijn gemaakt van reusachtig metselwerk, grote onregelmatige blokken van krijtachtig koraalsteen zonder mortel. De belangrijkste kamers onderscheiden zich door hun koepelvormige gewelf en de aanwezigheid van nissen die deuren en ramen suggereren.
Outstanding Universal Value
The Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum (underground cemetery) was discovered in 1902 on a hill overlooking the innermost part of the Grand Harbour of Valletta, in the town of Paola. It is a unique prehistoric monument, which seems to have been conceived as an underground cemetery, originally containing the remains of about 7,000 individuals. The cemetery was in use throughout the Żebbuġ, Ġgantija and Tarxien Phases of Maltese Prehistory, spanning from around 4000 B.C. to 2500 B.C.
Originally, one entered the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum through a structure at ground level. Only a few blocks of this entrance building have been discovered, and its form and dimensions remain uncertain. The plan of the Hypogeum itself is a series of three superimposed levels of chambers cut into soft globigerina limestone, using only chert, flint and obsidian tools and antlers. The earliest of the three levels is the uppermost, scooped out of the brow of a hill. A number of openings and chambers for the burial of the dead were then cut into the sides of the cavity.
The two lower levels were also hewn entirely out of the natural rock. Some natural daylight reached the middle level through a small opening from the upper level, but artificial lighting must have been used to navigate through some of the middle level chambers and the lowest level, which is 10.60 m below the present ground level.
One of the most striking characteristics of the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum is that some of the chambers appear to have been cut in imitation of the architecture of the contemporary, above-ground megalithic temples. Features include false bays, inspired by trilithon doorways, and windows. Most importantly, some of the chambers have ceilings with one ring of carved stone overhanging the one below to imitate a roof of corbelled masonry. This form echoes the way in which some of the masonry walls of the contemporary above-ground temple chambers are corbelled inwards, suggesting that they too were originally roofed over.
Some of the walls and ceilings of the chambers were decorated with spiral and honey-comb designs in red ochre, a mineral pigment. These decorations are the only prehistoric wall paintings found on the Maltese Islands. In one of these decorated chambers, there is a small niche which echoes when someone speaks into it. While this effect may not have been created intentionally, it may well have been exploited as part of the rituals that took place within the chambers.
Excavation of the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum produced a wealth of archaeological material, including numerous human bones, which suggests that the burial ritual had more than one stage. It appears that bodies were probably left exposed until the flesh had decomposed and fallen off. The remaining bones and what appear to be some of the personal belongings were then gathered and buried within the chambers together with copious amounts of red ochre. The use of ochre seems to have been a part of the ritual, perhaps to infuse the bones with the colour of blood and life. Individuals were not buried separately, but piled onto each other.
Artefacts recovered from the site include pottery vessels decorated in intricate designs, shell buttons, stone and clay beads and amulets, as well as little stone carved animals and birds that may have originally been worn as pendants. The most striking finds are stone and clay figurines depicting human figures. The most impressive of these figures is that showing a woman lying on a bed or ‘couch’, popularly known as the ‘Sleeping Lady’. This figure is a work of art in itself, demonstrating a keen eye for detail.
Criterion (iii): The Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum is a unique monument of exceptional value. It is the only known European example of a subterranean ‘labyrinth’ from about 4,000 B.C. to 2,500 B.C. The quality of its architecture and its remarkable state of preservation make it an essential prehistoric monument.
The Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum is one of the best preserved and most extensive environments that have survived from the Neolithic. With the exception of the fragmentary remains of the above-ground entrance, all the key attributes of the property, including the architectural details and painted wall decorations, have remained intact within the boundaries.
The main threats to the preservation of the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum are the fluctuating temperature and relative humidity levels within the site, as well as water infiltration and biological infestations.
The Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum is one of the two most important prehistoric burial sites in the Maltese islands and is very well preserved, unlike the fragmentary remains that usually survive from the above-ground structures of this period.
The unusual preservation of the rock-cut chambers allows the study of a system of interconnecting spaces very much as they were conceived and experienced by a Neolithic mind. The imitation of the interior of a megalithic temple built above ground not only provides evidence on the corbelling system that was used to roof the temples, but is also important in terms of the development of human processes of cognition and representation.
The Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum has also yielded several important artefacts of great artistic significance. Foremost amongst these is the so-called ‘Sleeping Lady’, a miniature ceramic figurine that is widely held to be one of the great masterpieces of prehistoric anthropomorphic representation.
Protection and management requirements
The principal legal instrument for the protection of cultural heritage resources in Malta is the Cultural Heritage Act (2002), which provides for and regulates national bodies for the protection and management of cultural heritage resources. Building development and land use is regulated by the Environment and Development Planning Act (2010 and subsequent amendments), which provides for and regulates the Malta Environment and Planning Authority. The Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum is protected by a buffer zone, and both the Ħal Saflieni Hypogeum and its buffer zone are formally designated by the Malta Environment and Planning Authority as a Grade A archaeological site, which means they are subject to wide-ranging restrictions of building development.
A programme of monitoring and research, launched in order to understand the microclimate of the Hypogeum, was followed by a project for the conservation of the property, designed and implemented in the 1990s. Houses directly above the site were acquired and dismantled; light levels within the property are strictly controlled; and visitor numbers limited. These measures have helped to maintain stable temperature and humidity levels, which continue to be monitored closely.
Hal Saflieni Hypogeum is a cultural property of exceptional prehistoric value. This unique monument dates back to early antiquity (about 2500 BC) and it is the only known example of a subterranean structure of the Bronze Age.
The hypogeum was discovered accidentally in 1902 by a stonemason who was laying the foundations of some houses on the island of Malta. Temi Zammit, the first Director of Malta's Museums Department, assumed responsibility for the excavation. His excavation yielded a wealth of archaeological material including much pottery and human bones, personal ornaments such as beads and amulets, little carved animals and larger figurines.
This 'labyrinth', as it is often called, consists of a series of elliptical chambers and alveoli of varying importance, to which access is gained by different corridors. The megalithic walls are constructed of cyclopean masonry - large irregular blocks of chalky coralline stone without mortar - which was summarily dressed with rudimentary tools of flint and obsidian. The principal rooms distinguish themselves by their domed vaulting and by the elaborate structure of false bays inspired by the doorways and windows of contemporary terrestrial constructions. The hypogeum, which was originally conceived as a sanctuary, perhaps an oracle, from the prehistoric period was transformed into an ossuary, as borne out by the remains of more than 7,000 individuals discovered during the course of the excavation.
The upper level consists of a large hollow with a central passage and burial chambers cut on each side. One of the chambers still contains original burial deposits. The middle level consists of various chambers very smoothly finished, which give the impression of built masonry. The workmanship is all the more impressive when it is considered that the chambers were meticulously carved using only flint and stone tools. Curvilinear and spiral paintings in red ochre are still visible in some areas. One of the niches in the 'Oracle Chamber' has the characteristic of echoing deep sounds. The carved facade is magnificent and the quality of its architecture is in a remarkable state of preservation.Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC