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Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape

Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape

The 160,000 ha Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape of dramatic mountainous desert in north-western South Africa constitutes a cultural landscape communally owned and managed. This site sustains the semi-nomadic pastoral livelihood of the Nama people, reflecting seasonal patterns that may have persisted for as much as two millennia in southern Africa. It is the only area where the Nama still construct portable rush-mat houses (haru om ) and includes seasonal migrations and grazing grounds, together with stock posts. The pastoralists collect medicinal and other plants and have a strong oral tradition associated with different places and attributes of the landscape.

Paysage culturel et botanique du Richtersveld

La zone de conservation de la communauté du Richtersveld couvre une superficie de 160 000 ha de déserts montagneux spectaculaires dans le nord-ouest de l’Afrique du Sud. Il s’agit d’un paysage culturel dont la propriété et la gestion sont communales. Le peuple nama y mène un mode de vie pastoral semi-nomade, témoignant de schémas saisonniers qui peuvent avoir persisté pas moins de deux millénaires en Afrique australe. C’est le seul endroit où les Nama construisent encore leurs maisons portables couvertes de jonc (haru oms): la zone inclut les migrations saisonnières et zones de pâturage et les sites de campement temporaire. Les pasteurs collectent des plantes médicinales et autres et il semble qu’il existe une forte tradition orale associée aux différents lieux et attributs du paysage.

مشهد ريشترسفيلد الثقافي والنباتي

  تغطي محمية جماعة ريشترسفيلد مساحة قدرها 160000 هكتار من الصحاري الجبلية المدهشة في الشمال الغربي لجنوب إفريقيا. مشهد ثقافي ملكيته وإدارته قروية، يعيش فيه شعب ناما حياة رعوية شبه بدوية، مذكراً أن تلك الأنماط الفصلية السائدة في جنوب القارة الإفريقية قد يعود تاريخها إلى ما لا يقل عن ألفي عام. إنه المكان الوحيد الذي مازال شعب ناما يبني فيه بيوته المحمولة التي تغطيها جدائل الأسل (وتسمى هارو أومس)، فالمنطقة تشهد حركات نزوح فصلية وتأوي المراعي ومضارب الخيم المؤقتة. يجمع الرعاة النباتات الطبية وغيرها، ويبدو أن تقليداً شفهياً يتعلق بالأمكنة المختلفة وبخصائص المشهد الطبيعي مازال متوارثاً.

source: UNESCO/ERI

理查德斯维德文化植物景观

占地16万公顷的理查德斯维德文化植物景观位于南非西北部引人注目的山区沙漠中,它构成了由社区拥有和管理的文化景观。该遗产保留了那马人半游牧性的牧民生活,说明可能在南非已存在两千年的季节变化模式。这是那马人仍然在建造便携式小屋的唯一一个地区。该遗产包括:季节性迁徙、牧场、储藏站(放牧人季节性放牛羊所用的基地),以及那马人有芦苇草垫席的房屋,即小小的半球型便携式建筑,由交叉木箍制成的木框架组成,铺上由当地灯心草辫成麻花状的细垫。住在这里的田园诗作者收集药用植物和其他植物,其口头叙述的老传统与不同地方和景观特点有关。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Культурный и ботанический ландшафт Рихтерсфельдского заповедника

Культурный и ботанический ландшафт Рихтерсфельдского заповедника - это участок горной пустыни на северо-западе страны, находящейся под общинным управлением полукочевой народности Нана. Предполагается, что способ ведения пастбищного хозяйства населяющей эту местность народности Нама (полукочевники) не менялся, подобно всему южноафриканскому региону, в течение двух тысячелетий. Именно здесь Нама все еще продолжают строить свои передвижные жилища - хару омс. На этой территории раскинулись сезонные выпасы для скота, кормохранилища (промежуточные базы, где при сменах сезона останавливаются пастухи при перегоне овечьих или коровьих стад), постройки из тростниковой циновки.  Жители этой местности занимаются сбором целебных трав и других растений. Их устоявшиеся устные традиции отражают специфику мест их кочевания.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Paisaje cultural y botánico de Richtersveld

Situado en un espectacular desierto montañoso del noroeste de Sudáfrica, este sitio de 160.000 hectáreas es un paisaje cultural de propiedad y gestión comunitarias. Está habitado por el pueblo nama, cuyo modo de vida pastoral y seminómada atestigua la persistencia de los asentamientos humanos estacionales en el África Meridional durante dos milenios por lo menos. Es el único lugar en el que este pueblo sigue construyendo sus casas portátiles de esteras de junto (haru oms). El sitio comprende las zonas de pasto y los lugares de acampada temporalmente utilizados durante las migraciones estacionales. Recolectores de plantas medicinales y de otro tipo, los pastores nama poseen una arraigada cultura oral estrechamente vinculada a diversos lugares y atributos del sitio.

source: UNESCO/ERI

リフタスフェルトの文化的及び植生景観

source: NFUAJ

Cultuur- en botanisch landschap Richtersveld

Het 160.000 hectare grote cultuur- en botanisch landschap Richtersveld is een bergachtige woestijn in het noordwesten van Zuid-Afrika. Het cultuurlandschap wordt communaal beheerd en bestuurd. Het gebied ondersteunt het semi-nomadische herderlijk levensonderhoud van de Nama bevolking door z'n seizoenspatronen, die waarschijnlijk al meer dan twee millennia voorkomen in zuidelijk Afrika. Het culturele en botanische landschap is het enige gebied waar de Nama nog steeds verplaatsbare huizen ('haru om') maken. Het Nama gebied kent seizoensgebonden migraties en begrazingsgronden en voorraadposten. De herders verzamelen medicinale en andere planten en hebben een sterke orale traditie, die verbonden is aan de verschillende plaatsen en eigenschappen van het landschap.

Source: unesco.nl

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Richtersveld
Outstanding Universal Value

The extensive communal grazed lands of the Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape are a testimony to land management processes which have ensured the protection of the succulent Karoo vegetation and thus demonstrates a harmonious interaction between people and nature. Furthermore, the seasonal migrations of graziers between stockposts with traditional demountable mat-roofed houses, |haru oms, reflect a practice that was once much more widespread over Southern Africa, and which has persisted for at least two millennia; the Nama are now its last practitioners.

Criterion (iv): The rich diverse botanical landscape of the Richtersveld, shaped by the pastoral grazing of the Nama, represents and demonstrates a way of life that persisted for many millennia over a considerable part of southern Africa and was a significant stage in the history of this area.

Criterion (v): The Richtersveld is one of the few areas in southern Africa where transhumance pastoralism is still practised; as a cultural landscape it reflects long-standing and persistent traditions of the Nama, the indigenous community. Their seasonal pastoral grazing regimes, which sustain the extensive bio-diversity of the area, were once much more widespread and are now vulnerable.

The cultural landscape comprises all the elements linked to the transhumance lifestyle of the Nama pastoralists. The authenticity of the grazing areas and stockposts is incontrovertible. The authenticity of the traditional domed houses is mainly intact, despite the incorporation of some new materials along with the finely braided traditional mats. There are increasing numbers of young people interested in continuing the traditions.

The Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape has full legal protection. The process of declaring the property as a Heritage Area was completed in early 2007. The traditional land-use system of the Nama should be seen as part of the protection system. A buffer zone has been established. The two key areas for conservation measures are sustaining the grazing areas and sustaining the tradition of building portable mat-roofed houses. The Richtersveld Community Conservancy (RCC) is managed by a Communal Property Association (CPA) with a Management Committee (company without profit) and a participative Management Plan is in place to manage the identified Heritage Area. The Management Plan, addresses management structures, infrastructure development, awareness raising, tourism development and monitoring and evaluation. It should provide support to the traditional management system rather than replacing it.

Historical Description

The Khoi-Khoi people, ancestors of the Nama, once occupied lands across southern Namibia and most of the present-day Western and Northern Cape Provinces of South Africa. Over a century or more, those in the south were pushed north by the spread of European farms north from the Cape. This influx of refugees into the middle reaches of the Orange River in the 18th century led to turmoil in the area with predatory bands of brigands at large. In the 19th century, missionaries moved into the area. The mix of peoples together with the influence of outsiders led to a rapid dilution of traditional Khoi-Khoi culture. In the 1940s another group of people, the Boslius Basters were moved into the Richtersveld by the Apartheid regime: there they joined the Nama and after an initial uneasy relationship they have formed a partnership for land ownership in the Conservancy. Since 2003 the farmers have held the title to their lands.

The Khoi-Khoi and the San are considered to be the original indigenous inhabitants of southern Africa and thus custodians of ancient cultures. The Khoi-Khoi migrated with herds of sheep and cattle on a seasonal basis and lived in portable houses. Their legacy is, like the San, manifest in rock art. The earliest written records for the Khoi-Khoi were set down by explorers from Europe in the late 15th century, and from the late 17th century to the late 19th century many other missionaries and officials added to the record. During the 20th century the Khoi-Khoi have been written about extensively.

At the time of the first description, the Khoi-Khoi lived in clans, each with their own territory. Early Dutch settlers in the Cape began to buy livestock from the Khoi-Khoi in order to supply meat for the Dutch fleet. This led to stock shortages amongst the Khoi-Khoi and resulted in conflicts between the Europeans and the local communities. Within only a few years of the establishment of Cape Town, the Khoi-Khoi began to migrate north and in order to fill the gap of cattle supplies, the settlers created a system of freehold farms. Environmental conditions did not permit intensive agriculture; and extensive agriculture, meant that vast areas of land were taken over by the colonists as the frontiers of the colony spread rapidly to the east and north, often out of official control. The Khoi-Khoi were forced into military or mission service, or became labourers on settler farms. Many also succumbed to newly introduced diseases. Within a few generations the Khoi-Khoi had all but disappeared from many parts of their ancient homeland.

In the 20th century the existence of the Khoi-Khoi was denied under the Apartheid policy and they were subsumed into the coloured racial category. Since 1994 and liberation there has been a re-emergence of Khoi-Khoi identity and the emergence of the Nama, the last of the Khoi-Khoi to still practice traditional pastoralism. The Richtersveld, due to its remoteness, now remains the only place that reflects this way of life. Elsewhere, for instance in Namibia and other parts of South Africa, the Nama have mostly abandoned transhumance and the skills of traditional house building have almost disappeared.

The Richtersveld Community Conservancy was established in 2002, evolving out of the Richtersveld Community Heritage Area that was set up in 2000 to protect both the environment and culture of the area.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation