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Syracuse and the Rocky Necropolis of Pantalica

Syracuse and the Rocky Necropolis of Pantalica

The site consists of two separate elements, containing outstanding vestiges dating back to Greek and Roman times: The Necropolis of Pantalica contains over 5,000 tombs cut into the rock near open stone quarries, most of them dating from the 13th to 7th centuries BC. Vestiges of the Byzantine era also remain in the area, notably the foundations of the Anaktoron (Prince’s Palace). The other part of the property, Ancient Syracuse, includes the nucleus of the city’s foundation as Ortygia by Greeks from Corinth in the 8th century BC. The site of the city, which Cicero described as ‘the greatest Greek city and the most beautiful of all’, retains vestiges such as the Temple of Athena (5th century BC, later transformed to serve as a cathedral), a Greek theatre, a Roman amphitheatre, a fort and more. Many remains bear witness to the troubled history of Sicily, from the Byzantines to the Bourbons, interspersed with the Arabo-Muslims, the Normans, Frederick II of the Hohenstaufen dynasty (1197–1250), the Aragons and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. Historic Syracuse offers a unique testimony to the development of Mediterranean civilization over three millennia.

Syracuse et la nécropole rocheuse de Pantalica

Le site est composé de deux éléments séparés contenant des vestiges exceptionnels remontant aux époques grecque et romaine : la Nécropole de Pantalica compte plus de 5 000 tombes taillées dans la roche près de carrières à ciel ouvert et datant pour l’essentiel de la période comprise entre le XIIIe et le VIIe siècle av. J.-C. On y trouve également des vestiges de l’époque byzantine, en particulier les fondations de l’« Anaktoron » (palais du Prince). L’autre partie du site, l’ancienne Syracuse, inclut le noyau de la première fondation, au VIIIe siècle av. J.-C., avec l’arrivée des premiers colons grecs de Corinthe : Ortygia. Le site de cette ville contient des vestiges tels que le temple d’Athéna (Ve siècle av. J.-C., plus tard transformé en cathédrale), un théâtre grec, un amphithéâtre romain, un fort et encore bien d’autres trésors architecturaux. La Syracuse historique offre un témoignage unique du développement de la civilisation méditerranéenne sur trois millénaires.

سيراكوز ومقبرة بانتاليكا الصخرية

يتكوَّن الموقع من عنصرين منفصلين يحتويان على آثار استثنائية ترقى إلى الحقبتين الإغريقية والرومانية. وتعدُّ مقبرة بانتاليكا أكثر من 5000 قبر منحوت في الصخر قرب مقالع مكشوفة وتعود بمعظمها إلى الفترة الممتدة من القرن الثالث عشر إلى القرن السابع ق.م. كما نجد فيها آثاراً من الحقبة البيزنطية، وبالأخص أسس قصر الأمير الأناكتورون. أما الجزء الآخر من الموقع، أي مدينة سيراكوز القديمة، فيشمل نواة الأسس الأولى للمدينة، التي ترقى إلى القرن الثامن ق.م.، مع وصول أول المستوطنين الإغريق الكورنثيين: أورتيجيا. ويحوي موقع هذه المدينة آثاراً عدة مثل معبد أثينا (القرن الخامس ق.م.، والذي تحوَّل إلى كاتدرائية فيما بعد)، ومسرحاً إغريقياً، ومدرَّجاً رومانياً، وحصناً وغيره الكثير من الكنوز الهندسية الأخرى. وتوفر سيراكوز التاريخية شهادة فريدة حول تطور الحضارة المتوسطية على مدى ثلاثة آلاف سنة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

锡拉库扎和潘塔立克石墓群

锡拉库扎和潘塔立克石墓群由两个单独的成分组成,拥有希腊和罗马时期的显著痕迹:潘塔立克石墓群共有5000多个靠近露天采石场的石刻坟墓,大部分可追溯至公元前13世纪到公元前7世纪。这里保留有拜占庭时期的遗迹,特别是王子的宫殿阿纳托伦宫室的废墟。锡拉库萨古城的另外一部分是市中心的奥提伽城,在公元前8世纪时由来自科林斯城的希腊人修建。这个被西塞罗描述为“希腊最伟大、最美丽的城市”遗址保留有雅典娜胜利女神庙(建于公元前5世纪,后改造为大教堂)、希腊剧院、罗马圆形剧场、堡垒等。许多遗迹见证了西西里从拜占庭到波旁家族时期阿拉伯-穆斯林人、诺曼底人、腓特烈二世(公元1197年到1250年的霍亨斯道芬家族)、阿拉贡和两西西里王国之间纷乱的历史。锡拉库扎遗址展示了地中海文明在近3000年时间里的发展。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Древний город Сиракузы и скальный некрополь Панталика

Объект состоит из двух отдельных территорий, на которых находятся выдающиеся, относящиеся к временам Древней Греции и Древнего Рима памятники археологии. В некрополе Панталика можно видеть более 5000 гробниц, вырезанных в скале вблизи открытого карьера по добыче камня; большинство из них относится к периоду ХIII-VII вв. до н.э. Следы византийской эпохи также присутствуют на этой территории, наиболее заметны остатки фундамента Анакторона – дворца правителя. Другая часть объекта – это Древние Сиракузы, основанные под именем Ортигия греками из Коринфа в VIII в. до н.э и ставшие ядром современного города Сиракузы. В городе, который Цицерон характеризовал как «величайший греческий город, прекраснейший из всех», сохраняются многие объекты археологии, например, храм Афины V в. до н.э. (позднее преобразованный в кафедральный собор), руины древнегреческого театра, древнеримского амфитеатра, крепости и т.д. Многие памятники являются свидетельствами бурной истории Сицилии, от Византии до Бурбонов, а между ними – арабов-мусульман, норманнов, Фридриха II Гогенштауфена (1197-1250 гг.), арагонцев и Королевства Обеих Сицилий. Историческая часть города Сиракузы служат уникальным свидетельством развития средиземноморской цивилизации в течение более чем трех тысячелетий.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Siracusa y la necrópolis rupestre de Pantalica

El sitio comprende dos partes diferenciadas con vestigios notables de la época grecorromana. La primera es la Necrópolis de Pantalica, situada cerca de unas canteras a cielo abierto, que cuenta con más de 5.000 tumbas excavadas en la roca entre los siglos XIII y VII a. C. En esta necrópolis subsisten vestigios de la época bizantina, en particular los cimientos del “Anaktoron” (Palacio del príncipe). La segunda parte está constituida por la antigua Siracusa, donde se puede contemplar el núcleo primigenio de esta ciudad fundada por colonos griegos llegados de Corinto en el siglo VIII a. C, que le dieron en un principio el nombre de Ortygia. En el emplazamiento de Siracusa quedan vestigios del Templo de Atena (siglo V a.C.), que más tarde fue transformado en catedral. También subsisten vestigios de un teatro griego, un anfiteatro romano, un fuerte y muchas otras construcciones. La antigua Siracusa ofrece un ejemplo, único en su género, de la evolución de la civilización mediterránea a lo largo de más tres milenios.

source: UNESCO/ERI

シラクーザとパンタリカの岩壁墓地遺跡

source: NFUAJ

Syracuse en de rotsnecropolis van Pantalica

Dit gebied bestaat uit twee afzonderlijke elementen, met overblijfselen uit de Griekse en Romeinse tijd. De Necropolis van Pantalica bevat meer dan 5.000 rotsgraven in de buurt van open steengroeven, de meeste dateren uit de 13e tot 7e eeuw voor Christus. In dit gebied bevinden zich ook overblijfselen uit het Byzantijnse tijdperk, met name de fundamenten van de Anaktoron (Prinselijk paleis). Het andere onderdeel van het gebied is het oude Syracuse. Dit omvat de stadskern van Ortygia – gesticht door Grieken uit Korinthe in de 8e eeuw voor Christus –, die Cicero beschreef als ‘de allergrootste Griekse stad en allermooiste van allemaal’.

Source: unesco.nl

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Justification for Inscription

Criterion (ii): The sites and monuments which form the Syracuse/Pantalica ensemble constitute a unique accumulation, through the ages and in the same space, of remarkable testimonies to Mediterranean cultures.

Criterion (iii): The Syracuse/Pantalica ensemble offers, through its remarkable cultural diversity, an exceptional testimony to the development of civilisation over some three millennia.

Criterion (iv): The group of monuments and archeological sites situated in Syracuse (between the nucleus of Ortygia and the vestiges located throughout the urban area) is the finest example of outstanding architectural creation spanning several cultural aspects (Greek, Roman and Baroque).

Criterion (vi): Ancient Syracuse was directly linked to events, ideas and literary works of outstanding universal significance.

Long Description

The Syracuse/Pantalica ensemble, through its remarkable cultural diversity, offers exceptional testimony to the development of civilization over some three millennia.

Situated on the Mediterranean coast in south-eastern Sicily, and having always enjoyed a favourable climate while being relatively free of marked relief, the zone of monuments and archeological sites proposed for inscription on the World Heritage list has been inhabited since protohistoric times.

The Necropolis of Pantalica extends over some 1,200 m from north to south and 500 m from east to west in the region of Sortino. In the hilly terrain (caverns and precipices) and a natural environment of great beauty, about 5,000 tombs are visible, most of which have been hewn out of the rock face. Archaeological research has brought to light, in this zone, vestigial remains of dwellings from the period of Greek colonization. Materials of Mycenean origin and monumental structures were recognised, enabling the identification of the Anaktoron (Prince's Palace). Similarly, it has been possible to identify a period of reoccupation of the site in the 9th-10th centuries: the zone was in fact used for the defence against invasions of Sicily by the Arab armies.

On the side which has been inhabited from around the Neolithic period, and certainly from the start of the 13th century, Syracuse symbolizes by its foundation the development of the Greek presence in the Western Mediterranean. This city, founded in the 8th century was, according to the Ancients, very large and extremely beautiful. Its central nucleus, today the island of Ortygia, controlled two natural ports which had already become famous in ancient times. Ortygia consisted of five parts, giving rise to its alternative name of Pentapolis. The two ports are still identifiable today: Porto Piccolo to the east and Porto Grande to the west. Ortygia has a central main street and a network of other streets reminiscent of the orthogonal plan of the ancient Greek city, constructed in the 7th century BC. The following Greek remains are visible (from north to south):

Temple of Apollo (Apollonion);

Ionic Temple;

Temple of Athena (Athenaeion);

The Catacombs, the largest except for those in Rome, date from the palaeo-Christian period. Subsequently, many items bearing witness to the troubled history of Sicily remain, from the Byzantines to the Bourbons, with in between the Arabo-Muslims, the Normans, the government of Frederick II (1197-1250), the domination of the Aragons and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies: Church of St John the Baptist (4th-16th centuries), Church of St Martin (6th-14th centuries), Bellomo Palace (13th-18th centuries), Migliaccio Palace, Abeba Dunieli Palace and Francica-Nova Palace (15th century), Church of San Francesco all'Immacolata (13th-18th centuries), Church of the Collegio (built by Jesuits in the 17th century).

The most celebrated monument, with its great square, is the cathedral, which incorporates the remains of a Greek temple dating back to the 6th century BC. The excavations carried out in 1996-98 under the square have advanced knowledge of the history of Syracuse and its ancient monuments.

Constituted in 1952-55, the Archaeological Park of Neapolis includes the most spectacular Greek and Roman monuments bearing testimony to the past of Sicily: the magnificent Greek theatre; the Nymphaeum zone (with the cave); the sanctuary to Apollo; the imposing altar of Hieron II (king of Syracuse in 265-215 BC); the Roman amphitheatre; the great stone quarries, also known as the lautumiae; the Grotticelle necropolis, which contains the so-called tomb of Archimedes.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

Syracuse, in addition to its own history - one of the most ancient in the Western Mediterranean (excavations and research have revealed a substantial human presence as early as the Neolithic period, and particularly from the 13th century B.C., and have confirmed the presence of the first Greek colonists - Corinthians who arrived according to literary tradition in 734 B.C.) - has experienced most of the vicissitudes of the history of Sicily in general.

Historical summary:

- 9th century B.C.:

The Phoenicians colonise the island.

- 8th century B.C.:

The Greeks in turn set up settlement colonies on the eastern coast of Sicily (particularly at Syracuse) and establish trading posts rivalling those of the Phoenicians, and then those of Carthage, the Phoenicians' western metropolis.

- 5th-4th centuries B.C.:

Syracuse, the island's main city, exercises hegemonic control over the whole of Sicily (particularly under Dionysius the Elder: 405-367 B.C.).

- 212 B.C.:

Rome wins the 1st war against Carthage, conquers Sicily and makes it into a province, which then becomes a veritable granary. Syracuse is occupied after a very long and bitter siege (213-212).

- 5th-6th centuries A.D.:

Vandal domination is followed by the Byzantine conquest (which lasted until the 9th century).

- 9th-10th centuries:

The Arabo-Muslims, after conquering Sicily by defeating the Byzantines, turn it into an emirate. It prospers and Palermo, its capital, becomes a remarkably brilliant cultural and artistic centre.

- 1061-1091:

Norman domination of the whole island.

- 12th century:

Sicily becomes the centre of a rich and powerful monarchy, with the flowering of a brilliant and composite civilisation.

- 1197-1250:

The resplendent period of Frederick II Hohenstaufen.

- 1266:

The Duke of Anjou, Charles I, brother of St Louis, is crowned King of Sicily by the Pope.

- 1282-1442:

Sicily is in the control of Aragon.

- 1442-1458:

The kingdoms of Naples and Sicily are united, forming the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation