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Soltaniyeh

Soltaniyeh

The mausoleum of Oljaytu was constructed in 1302–12 in the city of Soltaniyeh, the capital of the Ilkhanid dynasty, which was founded by the Mongols. Situated in the province of Zanjan, Soltaniyeh is one of the outstanding examples of the achievements of Persian architecture and a key monument in the development of its Islamic architecture. The octagonal building is crowned with a 50 m tall dome covered in turquoise-blue faience and surrounded by eight slender minarets. It is the earliest existing example of the double-shelled dome in Iran. The mausoleum’s interior decoration is also outstanding and scholars such as A.U. Pope have described the building as ‘anticipating the Taj Mahal’.

Soltaniyeh

Le mausolée d’Oljeitu fut construit entre 1302 et 1312 dans la ville de Soltaniyeh, capitale des tribus mongoles Ilkhanides. Situé dans la province de Zanjan, à quelque 240 km de Téhéran dans le nord-ouest de l’Iran, Soltaniyeh est l’un des exemples les plus saisissants de réalisations architecturales perses et un monument clé dans le développement de l’architecture islamique. Cet édifice de forme octogonale est surmonté d’une coupole majestueuse d’une hauteur de 50 m, recouverte de carreaux de faïence turquoise et entourée de huit minarets à la silhouette élancée. Cette structure constitue le plus ancien exemple existant de coupole double en Iran. La décoration de l’intérieur du mausolée est également admirable et des spécialistes tels qu’A.U. Pope ont qualifié ce bâtiment de « précurseur du Taj Mahal ».

السلطانية

شيِّد ضريح ألجيتو بين العامين 1302 و1312 في مدينة السلطانية، عاصمة القبائل المغولية الخاندية. تقع المدينة في مقاطعة زنجان على بعد حوالي 240 كلم من طهران شمال غرب إيران. وهي توفر أحد ألمع الأمثلة للإنجازات الهندسية الفارسية وتمثل نصباً أساسياً في تطور الهندسة المعمارية الإسلامية. يعلو هذا النصب المثمَّن الزوايا قبة مهيبة يبلغ ارتفاعها 50 متراً، تغطيها رسوم خزفية باللون الأزرق الفيروزي وتحيط بها ثماني مآذن رفيعة. كما تشكل هذه البنية أقدم مثال قائم لقبة مزدوجة في إيران. وتجدر الإشارة إلى أن الأسلوب الزخرفي داخل الضريح يبلغ مستوى رائعاً من الجمال وقد وصف أخصائيون من أمثال أ. بوب هذا النصب بـ"السابق للتاج محل".

source: UNESCO/ERI

苏丹尼叶城

苏丹尼叶城是伊卡哈尼德王朝(Ilkhanid dynasty)的首都,由蒙古人所建,并于1302-1312年间在该城修建了欧杰图陵墓。苏丹尼叶位于伊朗赞詹省,不仅是波斯建筑成就的良好典范,还是伊斯兰建筑发展史上的一个重要纪念碑。陵墓八角型的建物顶着一座50米高、覆盖土耳其蓝陶片的圆顶,并由八座细长的尖塔所围绕。它是伊朗现存的最早双层圆屋顶建筑,陵墓的内部装饰也很出色,波普等学者形容这座陵墓为“泰姬陵的先驱”。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Мавзолей Солтание (провинция Зинджан)

Мавзолей Ольджейту был сооружен в 1302-12 гг. в городе Солтание, бывшем столицей династии ильханов, основанной монголами (современная провинция Зинджан). Этот мавзолей является одним из выдающихся образцов достижений персидской архитектуры и ключевым памятником развития архитектуры ислама. Восьмиугольное здание высотой 50 м увенчано куполом, покрытым бирюзовыми изразцами и окруженным восемью стройными минаретами. Это самый ранний в Иране пример двухслойного купола. Украшения интерьера мавзолея также неординарно, и некоторые исследователи характеризуют это здание как «предвосхищение Тадж-Махала».

source: UNESCO/ERI

Soltaniyeh

El mausoleo de Öldjeytü fue construido entre 1302 y 1312 en la ciudad de Soltaniyeh, antigua capital de la dinastía mongol de los iljanidas. Situado al nordeste del Irán, en la provincia de Zanjan, a unos 240 km de Teherán, este monumento es uno de los ejemplos más notables de las realizaciones arquitectónicas persas y ha tenido una importancia decisiva en el desarrollo de la arquitectura islámica. El edificio del mausoleo es de forma octogonal y está rematado por una majestuosa cúpula doble de 50 metros de altura. Recubierta con azulejos turquesa y rodeada por ocho minaretes altos y esbeltos, esta cúpula es la más antigua de todo el Irán en su género. La ornamentación interior del mausoleo es admirable y el eminente especialista A. U. Pope lo ha calificado de “precursor del Taj Mahal”.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ソルターニーエ
ソルターニーエは、イラン北西部ザンジャーン州にあり、13世紀にモンゴル人が創ったイル・ハーン国の首都である。この地にあるオルジャイトゥの霊廟は、イル・ハーン国中期の1302~12年に造営されたもの。八角形の建物は紺青色の装飾陶器で覆われた高さ50mのドームを戴き、周囲を8本の細いミナレット(尖塔)が囲む。この二重外殻ドームは、イランに現存する最古のものである。霊廟内部の装飾もまた傑出したものであり、建築学者、A.U.ポープはこの建築物を「タージ・マハール」を予見している」と述べている。

source: NFUAJ

Soltaniyeh

Soltaniyeh ligt in de provincie Zanjan en is de hoofdstad van het Il-kanaat, een van de delen van het Mongoolse rijk. De stad is een uitstekend voorbeeld van de verworvenheden van de Perzische architectuur en een belangrijk monument voor de islamitische architectuur. Van 1302 tot 1312 werd het mausoleum van Oljaytu gebouwd. Dit achthoekige gebouw wordt bekroond met een 50 meter hoge koepel bedekt met turkooisblauw faience en omgeven door acht smalle minaretten. Het is het vroegst bestaande voorbeeld van de dubbele dop koepel in Iran. Het mausoleum is van binnen en buiten in uitstekende staat en is wel omschreven alsof het ‘anticipeert op de Taj Mahal’.

Source: unesco.nl

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Soltaniyeh © Sorush Angabini
Outstanding Universal Value
Brief Synthesis

In north-western Iran’s city of Soltaniyeh, which was briefly the capital of Persia’s Ilkhanid dynasty (a branch of the Mongol dynasty) during the 14th century, stands the Mausoleum of Oljaytu, its stunning dome covered with turquoise-blue faience tiles. Constructed in 1302-12, the tomb of the eighth Ilkhanid ruler is the main feature remaining from the ancient city; today, it dominates a rural settlement surrounded by the fertile pasture of Soltaniyeh. The Mausoleum of Oljaytu is recognized as the architectural masterpiece of its period and an outstanding achievement in the development of Persian architecture, particularly in its innovative double-shelled dome and interior decoration.

The Mausoleum of Oljaytu is an essential link and key monument in the development of Islamic architecture in central and western Asia. Here, the Ilkhanids further developed ideas that had been advanced during the classical Seljuk phase (11th to early 13th centuries), during which the arts of Iran gained distinction in the Islamic world, thereby setting the stage for the Timurid period (late 14th to 15th centuries), one of the most brilliant periods in Islamic art. Particularly relevant are the mausoleum dome’s double-shell structure (an inside shell and an outside shell), and the materials and themes used in its interior decoration. The very large 50-m-high dome is the earliest extant example of its type, and became an important reference for the later development of the Islamic dome. Similarly, the extremely rich interior of the mausoleum, which includes glazed tiles, brickwork, marquetry or designs in inlaid materials, stucco, and frescoes, illustrates an important movement towards more elaborate materials and themes. The Mausoleum of Oljaytu thus speaks eloquently to the Ilkhanid period, which was characterised by innovations in structural engineering, spatial proportions, architectural forms, and decorative patterns and techniques.

Excavations carried out in the 790-ha Mausoleum of Oljaytu property have revealed additional vestiges of the old city, and a large part of this property has retained its archaeological character. As the ancient capital of the Ilkhanid dynasty, Soltaniyeh represents an exceptional testimony to the history of the 13th and 14th centuries in Iran.

Criterion (ii): The Mausoleum of Oljaytu forms an essential link in the development of the Islamic architecture in central and western Asia, from the classical Seljuk phase into the Timurid period. This is particularly relevant to the double-shell structure and the elaborate use of materials and themes in the decoration. 

Criterion (iii)Soltaniyeh, as the ancient capital of the Ilkhanid dynasty, represents an exceptional testimony to the history of 13th and 14th centuries.

Criterion (iv): The Mausoleum of Oljaytu represents an outstanding achievement in the development of Persian architecture, particularly in the Ilkhanid period, characterised by its innovative engineering structure, spatial proportions, architectural forms, and the decorative patterns and techniques.

 Integrity

Within the boundaries of the property are located all the elements and components necessary to express the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, most importantly the Mausoleum of Oljaytu. The exterior decorations of the mausoleum have suffered severe decline, which has affected its integrity. Nevertheless, the internal decorations have remained intact to a large degree. Urban development around the property represents a potential threat, though such development is slow.

 Authenticity

The historical monument of the Mausoleum of Oljaytu at Soltaniyeh is authentic in terms of its form and design, materials and substance, and location and setting. Restoration work has carefully respected the authenticity of the monument, utilizing traditional technology and materials in harmony with the ensemble.

Protection and management requirements 

Soltaniyeh is state owned, and protected as a national monument on the basis of the Iranian Law on the Conservation of National Monuments (1982) and the Law on City Properties (1982). Parts of the buffer zone are in private ownership. The principal management authority of the property is the Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicraft and Tourism Organization (which is administered and funded by the Government of Iran) through its local office in Zanjan. There is a management plan with short-term (1-year), mid-term (3-year), and long-term (5-year) objectives related to equipment, research, restoration and conservation, and development of tourism at Soltaniyeh. Financial resources for the property are provided through national budgets.

 Sustaining the Outstanding Universal Value of the property over time will require continuing to respect scientific standards and to properly safeguard the monument when undertaking conservation and restoration projects; controlling the effects of urban development around the property by devising and executing appropriate management strategies in this regard; and directing studies of the Mausoleum of Oljaytu (including, among others, studies of the decorations, reinforcement projects, and scientifically justified tourist attraction programs) toward specific, detailed outcomes that maintain and/or enhance the Outstanding Universal Value, integrity, and authenticity of the property.