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Struve Geodetic Arc

Struve Geodetic Arc

The Struve Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through 10 countries and over 2,820 km. These are points of a survey, carried out between 1816 and 1855 by the astronomer Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve, which represented the first accurate measuring of a long segment of a meridian. This helped to establish the exact size and shape of the planet and marked an important step in the development of earth sciences and topographic mapping. It is an extraordinary example of scientific collaboration among scientists from different countries, and of collaboration between monarchs for a scientific cause. The original arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 main station points. The listed site includes 34 of the original station points, with different markings, i.e. a drilled hole in rock, iron cross, cairns, or built obelisks.

Arc géodésique de Struve

L’arc de Struve est un réseau de triangulations qui s’étend de Hammerfest en Norvège jusqu’à la mer Noire et traverse 10 pays sur plus de 2 820 km. L’arc est formé par les points d’une triangulation réalisée entre 1816 et 1855 par l’astronome Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve et représentant la première mesure exacte d’un long segment de méridien. Cette triangulation a contribué à définir et mesurer la taille et la forme exactes de la Terre ; elle a joué un rôle essentiel dans le développement des sciences de la Terre et l’établissement de cartes topographiques précises. C’est un formidable exemple de collaboration scientifique entre chercheurs de différents pays et de coopération entre des monarques pour une cause scientifique. À l’origine, l’arc était constitué de 258 triangles principaux et de 265 points fixes principaux. Le site inscrit sur la liste comprend 34 des points fixes d’origine, avec différents marquages – trous percés dans la roche, croix en fer, cairns ou obélisques.

قوس ستروف الجيوديزي

إن قوس ستروف هو شبكة تثليثات تمتد من هامرفست في النروج حتى البحر الأسود وتعبر 10 بلدان على أكثر من 2820 كيلومترا. يتألف القوس من نقاط التثليث التي تمّ انجازها بين 1816 و 1855على يد عالم الفلك فريدريش جيورج ويلهلم ستروف وتمثّل أول قياس دقيق لجزء من خط التصنيف. لقد ساهمت هذه الصيغة التثليثية في تحديد قياس الأرض وشكلها الدقيقين وأدّت دوراً أساسياً في تطوير علوم الأرض ورسم خرائط طوبوغرافية دقيقة. إنه مثال ممتاز للتعاون العلمي بين باحثين من دول مختلفة والتعاون بين الملوك من أجل قضية علمية. في البدء، كان القوس يتألف من 258 مثلثاً اساسياً و 265 نقطة ثابتة رئيسة. يشمل الموقع المسجّل على القائمة 34 نقطة ثابتة أصليّة وعلامات مختلفة مثل الثقوب المحفورة في الصخور والصلبان الحديدية وركام الحجارة كعلامة أو المسلات.

source: UNESCO/ERI

斯特鲁维地理探测弧线

斯特鲁维地理探测弧线是一个三角测量链,北起挪威哈默菲斯特(Hammerfest),南至黑海,弧线穿越十个国家,长2820公里。弧线是天文学家弗里德理西·格奥尔格·威廉·斯特鲁维(Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve)于1816至1855年期间进行测量的测量点,代表着人类首次对子午线长短的精确测量。这一测量帮助人类掌握了地球的确切大小和形状,是地球科学和地形绘图学发展中的重要一步。这个弧线不仅是多国科学家通力合作的一个特例,也是多国君主为科学事业联袂协作的一个特例。原始弧线包含258个主要三角形和265个测量站点。列入世界遗产名录的弧有34个原始测量站点,带有各种不同标记,如岩石钻孔、铁十字、堆石标或方尖石碑。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Геодезическая дуга Струве

«Дуга Струве» – это цепь триангуляционных пунктов, протянувшаяся на 2820 км по территории десяти европейских стран от Хаммерфеста в Норвегии до Черного моря. Эти опорные точки наблюдений были заложены в период 1816-1855 гг. астрономом Фридрихом Георгом Вильгельмом Струве (он же – Василий Яковлевич Струве), который произвел таким образом первое достоверное измерение большого сегмента дуги земного меридиана. Это позволило точно установить размер и форму нашей планеты, что стало важным шагом в развитии наук о Земле и топографического картирования. Это был исключительный пример сотрудничества в научной сфере между учеными разных стран и между правящими монархами. Первоначально «дуга» состояла из 258 геодезических «треугольников» (полигонов) с 265 основными триангуляционными пунктами. В объект всемирного наследия вошли 34 таких пункта (наиболее хорошо уцелевших к настоящему времени), которые маркированы на местности самым разным образом, как то: выдолбленные в скалах углубления, железные кресты, пирамиды из камней или специально установленные обелиски.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Arco geodésico de Struve

El arco geodésico de Struve es un conjunto de triangulaciones que se extiende por diez países, a lo largo de 2.820 km, desde Hammerfest (Noruega) hasta el Mar Negro. Compuesto por los puntos de la triangulación realizada entre 1816 y 1855 por el astrónomo Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve, este arco permitió realizar la primera medición precisa de un largo segmento del meridiano terrestre. Esta triangulación contribuyó a definir y medir la forma exacta de la Tierra y desempeñó un papel importante en el adelanto de las ciencias geológicas y la realización de mapas topográficos precisos. Es una muestra extraordinaria de la colaboración científica entre sabios de distintos países, así como un ejemplo de cooperación entre varios monarcas europeos en pro del progreso científico. El arco primigenio estaba constituido por 258 triángulos y 265 puntos fijos principales. El sitio inscrito en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial comprende 34 de los puntos fijos originales señalados por medios diferentes: perforaciones en rocas, cruces de hierro, túmulos y obeliscos.

source: UNESCO/ERI

シュトゥルーヴェの三角点アーチ観測地点群

source: NFUAJ

Geodetische boog van Struve

De Struve-boog is een keten van driehoeksmeetpunten die zich uitstrekt van Hammerfest in Noorwegen tot de Zwarte Zee. De oorspronkelijke boog bestond uit 258 driehoeken met 265 hoofdstationpunten, allemaal onderdeel van het onderzoek dat de astronoom Friedrich Georg Wilhelm Struve deed tussen 1816 en 1855. Het resultaat was de eerste nauwkeurige meting van het lange segment van een meridiaan. Mede dankzij het onderzoek kon de exacte grootte en vorm van de planeet vastgesteld worden. Er resteren nog 34 van de oorspronkelijke punten gemarkeerd als een geboord gat in een rots, een ijzeren kruis, steenhopen of obelisken. De Struve-boog gaat door 10 landen en beslaat ruim 2.820 kilometer.

Source: unesco.nl

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Justification for Inscription

Criterion (ii): The first accurate measuring of a long segment of a meridian, helping in the establishment of the exact size and shape of the world exhibits an important step in the development of earth sciences. It is also an extraordinary example for interchange of human values in the form of scientific collaboration among scientists from different countries. It is at the same time an example for collaboration between monarchs of different powers, for a scientific cause.

Criterion (iv): The Struve Geodetic Arc is undoubtedly an outstanding example of technological ensemble – presenting the triangulation points of the measuring of the meridian, being the non movable and non tangible part of the measuring technology.

Criterion (vi): The measuring of the arc and its results are directly associated with men wondering about his world, its shape and size. It is linked with Sir Isaac Newton's theory that the world is not an exact sphere.

Long Description

The first accurate measuring of a long segment of a meridian, helping to establish the exact size and shape of the world, exhibits an important step in the development of earth sciences. Since around 500 BC it had been known that the Earth was not flat, but of some spherical shape. In the 3rd century BC, the surveying technique and theory for determining the size of the Earth was developed by Eratosthenes. This theory remained in use until the era of satellite geodesy. Eratosthenes's theory, using length measurement and angles determined by star observations, made it possible to determine the size of the Earth, while the measurements themselves were still not accurate, mainly owing to inadequate methods and equipment.

In the 17th century better measuring equipment was developed, together with a new method using triangulations. According to this method, a much shorter line could be measured accurately, while the long distances were covered by a chain of triangles. These triangles each spanned several hundred kilometres, with each of their sides (base lines) as long as 100 km and each triangle in the chain having one common base line with at least one other triangle and two common corners (station points) with another triangle.

The triangulation method helped to establish in the 1730s and 1740s the true shape of the Earth, by means of long arcs in Peru and Lapland. The problem of the size of the Earth remained unsolved and had become even more complex, as it was known that it was not a perfect sphere. The different early arcs in France, Peru, Lapland, Italy, South Africa and Austria had various shortcomings that did not allow for an accurate solution of this issue. The defeat of Napoleon, followed by the Congress of Vienna and the decision in 1815 to establish agreed international boundaries in Europe, required accurate mapping. These needs were strongly felt in Russia, where Tsar Alexander I provided the astronomer Wilhelm Struve with all the resources for his project for a new long geodetic arc. This can be seen as the first step for the development of modern geodetic framework and topographic mapping.

A very long arc, completed in 1840, had been measured in India by Lambton and Everest, and a shorter arc in Lithuania by Carl Tenner. Struve, who was working at the Dorpat University in modern Estonia, decided that the arc he would establish would follow a line of longitude (meridian) passing through the observatory of the university. The new long arc, later to be known as the Struve Arc, was finally createded by connecting earlier, shorter arcs to the southern one measured by Tenner, and their extension to the north and south. The arc covered thus a line connecting Fuglenæs near Hammerfest in the far north, along 2,800 km, with Staro-Nekrasowka, near Ismail, on the Black Sea shores.

The World Heritage site consists of 34 of the original station points established by Struve and his colleagues between 1816 and 1851 - four points in Norway, four in Sweden, six in Finland, one in Russia, three in Estonia, two in Latvia, three in Lithuania, five in Belarus, one in Moldova and four in Ukraine. These marks take different forms: small holes drilled in rock surfaces, and sometimes filled with lead; cross-shaped engraved marks on rock surfaces; solid stone or brick with a marker inset; rock structures (cairns), with a central stone or brick, marked by a drilled hole; single bricks; and specially constructed 'monuments' to commemorate the point and the arc.

The Struve Geodetic Arc is an extraordinary example of interchange of human values in the form of scientific collaboration among scientists from different countries, as well as an outstanding example of a technological ensemble.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC