Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl
Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl
Situated at the confluence of the Volga and Kotorosl Rivers some 250 km north-east of Moscow, the historic city of Yaroslavl developed into a major commercial centre from the 11th century. It is renowned for its numerous 17th-century churches and is an outstanding example of the urban planning reform Empress Catherine the Great ordered for the whole of Russia in 1763. While keeping some of its significant historic structures, the town was renovated in the neoclassical style on a radial urban master plan. It has also kept elements from the 16th century in the Spassky Monastery, one of the oldest in the Upper Volga region, built on the site of a pagan temple in the late 12th century but reconstructed over time.
Centre historique de la ville de Yaroslavl
La ville historique de Yaroslavl est située au confluent de la Volga et de la Kotorosl, à quelque 250 km au nord-est de Moscou. À partir du XIe siècle, elle devint un centre de commerce très important. Elle est célèbre pour ses nombreuses églises du XVIIe siècle. Yaroslav est un exemple remarquable du programme de rénovation urbaine ordonné en 1763 par l’impératrice Catherine la Grande pour l’ensemble de la Russie. Tout en conservant certaines de ses structures historiques importantes, la ville fut rénovée dans le style néoclassique suivant un plan directeur urbain en étoile. On trouve également des éléments datant du XVIe siècle dans le monastère Spassky, l’un des plus anciens de la région de la Haute Volga, bâti à l’origine sur le site d’un temple païen à la fin du XIIe siècle, mais reconstruit au fil des siècles.
وسط مدينة ياروسلافل الوطني
تقع مدينة ياروسلافل التاريخيّة عند ملتقى نهري فولغا وكوتورسول على بعد 250 كلم شمال شرق موسكو. ومنذ القرن الحادي عشر أصبحت مركزاً تجاريّاً مهمّاً. وهي مشهورة بكنائسها العديدة التي ترقى إلى القرن الثامن عشر. وياروسلافل هي خير مثال عن برنامج التطوّر الحضري الذي أمرت به الإمبراطورة كاترين الكبيرة لروسيا قاطبةً. وبينما حافظت المدينة على بعض الهيكليّات التاريخيّة المهمّة جرى تطويرها على النسق الكلاسيكي الجديد انطلاقاً من خطّة توجيهيّة حضريّة تتخذ شكل نجمة. وفيها أيضاً عناصر ترقى إلى القرن السادس عشر في دير سباسكي، وهو من بين الأقدم في منطقة نهر فولغا العليا وقد بنيت أولاّ على أنقاض مبعد وثني أواخر القرن الثاني عشر ولكن أُعيد بناؤها على مرّ القرون.
Исторический центр Ярославля
Исторический город Ярославль, расположенный приблизительно в 250 км к северо-востоку от Москвы при впадении реки Которосль в Волгу, был основан в ХI в. и впоследствии развился в крупный торговый центр. Он известен своими многочисленными церквями ХVII в., и как выдающийся образец осуществления реформы городской планировки, проведенной по указу императрицы Екатерины Великой в 1763 г. по всей России. Хотя город и сохранил ряд замечательных исторических построек, в дальнейшем он был реконструирован в стиле классицизма на основе радиального генерального плана. В нем также сохранились относящиеся к ХVI в. сооружения Спасского монастыря – одного из старейших в Верхневолжском регионе, возникшего в конце ХII в. на месте языческого храма, но со временем перестроенного.
Centro histórico de la ciudad de Yaroslavl
Situada en la confluencia de los ríos Volga y Kotorosl, a unos 250 km al nordeste de Moscú, la histórica ciudad de Yaroslavl se convirtió en un centro comercial de primera importancia en el siglo XI. Es famosa por sus iglesias del siglo XVII y constituye además un ejemplo excepcional de la reforma urbanística impuesta en 1763 por la emperatriz Catalina la Grande en el conjunto de Rusia. Aunque siguió conservando una parte de sus estructuras antiguas importantes, la ciudad se renovó en estilo neoclásico y con arreglo a un plan de ordenación urbana en forma de estrella. Yaroslavl conserva también elementos arquitectónicos del siglo XVI en el Monasterio Spassky, uno de los más antiguos de la región del Alto Volga, que fue objeto de numerosas reconstrucciones desde su fundación a finales del siglo XII en el emplazamiento de un templo pagano.
Historisch centrum van Yaroslavl
De historische stad Yaroslavl ligt op de plek waar de rivieren Wolga en Kotorosl samenvloeien, ongeveer 250 kilometer ten noordoosten van Moskou. De historische stad ontwikkelde zich tot een belangrijk commercieel centrum gedurende de 11e eeuw. Yaroslavl staat bekend om zijn vele 17e-eeuwse kerken en is een goed voorbeeld van de stedenbouwkundige hervorming die keizerin Catharina de Grote in 1763 verordonneerde in heel Rusland De stad kent echter ook elementen uit de 16e eeuw zoals bijvoorbeeld het Spassky klooster, een van de oudste kloosters in de Boven-Wolga regio.
Outstanding Universal Value
The city of Yaroslavl is situated on the Volga River at its confluence with the Kotorosl River, some 250 km northeast of Moscow. It was founded by the Prince of Kievan Russia Yaroslav-the-Wise (988-1010) and consisted of a small wooden fortress. Until the 13th century, it had belonged to the territory of Rostov Principality and in 1218 it became the capital of Yaroslavl Principality. The city of Yaroslavl started developing in 1463 when Yaroslavl Principality joined the powerful Moscow state. After several fires, and starting from the 16th century, the original wooden town was gradually rebuilt in stone.
The Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl is the oldest part and the kernel of development of one of the most ancient, rich, and well preserved Russian cities. The historic centre is a representative example of the development of the planning structures of ancient Russian cities, which was subject to regular urban re-development as a part of unique town-planning reform pursued by Empress Catherine the Great at the end of 18th century. Solutions developed and implemented in Yaroslavl ensured preservation of the historical environment and spatial integrity in the central part of the city. The Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl became a recognised model in the art of town planning during the Neoclassical Age, which has organically incorporated ancient elements of the city’s historical structure.
The historical centre of Yaroslavl comprises a large number of town-planning elements representing the development of Russian architecture of the 16th to 18th centuries. The property consists of the historic centre of the city, the Slobody, forming roughly a half circle with radial streets from the centre. It is essentially Neoclassical in style, with harmonious and uniform streetscapes. Most residential and public buildings are two to three storeys high along wide streets and urban squares. A specific and unique feature of Yaroslavl is the existence of numerous 16th- and 17th-century churches and monastic ensembles with valuable mural paintings and iconostases, which are outstanding in terms of their architecture, as dominant town-planning elements and composition centres. The main merits of the town-planning structure and architectural face of Yaroslavl city centre are the rational approach to activation of artistic values of the past within the city system, and the subordination of further architectural constructions to them, using the contrast between picturesque ancient churches and distinctly regular, symmetrical, composed classical buildings of the later periods.
Another particularity is the organic use of the rich natural landscape at the junction of two rivers, with their picturesque banks and wide water expanses. They reveal marvellous sights of well-equipped embankments with the best buildings constructed there.
Criterion (ii): Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl with its 17th-century churches and its neoclassical radial urban plan and civic architecture is an outstanding example of the interchange of cultural and architectural influences between Western Europe and the Russian Empire.
Criterion (iv): Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl is an outstanding example of the town-planning reform ordered by Empress Catherine The Great in the whole of Russia, implemented between 1763 and 1830.
The vast majority of all the attributes and elements expressing the Outstanding Universal Value are within the property border. The property has adequate size (110 ha) to ensure the complete representation of the features and processes which convey the property’s significance. The 580 ha buffer zone provides also the protection to maintain the conditions of integrity.
All the attributes of the property are still present in good condition, and dynamic functions between them are maintained. The most significant monuments of cultural heritage in the historical centre of the city are architectural complexes of central streets, squares and embankments. In addition, among the most important architectural objects of the centre of Yaroslavl are the Spaso Preobrazhensky monastery founded in the 12th century with walls and towers of the 16th to19th centuries, and the 17th-century Church of the Epiphany.
The conditions of integrity are threatened by the violation of the historical horizontal skyline with dominating elements, in particular, the serious changes to the town-planning due to the construction of the Uspenskiy Cathedral. Other factors that require attention include the gradual change of the town-planning structure, new construction projects and restoration projects that adapt to modern functions.
From the town-planning point of view, the inscribed property has retained its authenticity. It is noted that, differing from many other renovation projects in the Soviet period, the banks and islands of the Kotorosl River have been preserved, retaining the historic town with its rare natural framework. Even the river port on the Volga built in the 1980s does not interfere excessively with the town-planning composition. In the Stalinist period, thousands of churches were demolished especially in larger cities in Russia. On the other hand, in Yaroslavl, out of some 80 churches and chapels, 56 have survived intact. This number has no comparison in other parts of Russia. Even though some churches were used as workshops or warehouses, they have usually retained their artistic finishes. Only a minimum of restoration is required and it has already been started with several buildings. The work done so far is considered to respond to required standards. The residential buildings, dating from 18th to early 20th centuries, have survived almost completely. Parts of the masonry fortifications have also been preserved in the northern and north-eastern section of the town, as well as the towers of the Virgin and Uglic, and the Volga Gates.
Protection and management requirements
The state management system of the property comprises the federal level represented by the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation, the regional level represented by the Government of the Yaroslavl Region (Department of Culture of the Yaroslavl Region), and the municipal level represented by the Administration of the City of Yaroslavl (Department of Architecture and Development of Territories of the City of Yaroslavl).
Administrative bodies in cooperation with other stakeholders carry out all processes according to the following normative documents: Federal Law of 25 June 2002, No. 73-FZ “On Cultural Heritage Properties (Monuments of History and Culture) of the Peoples of the Russian Federation”; the Master Plan of the City of Yaroslavl (approved by the Decision of the Municipality of Yaroslavl of 6 April 2006, No. 226); the Decision of the Government of the Yaroslavl Region of 22 June 2011, No. 456-p “On approval of the project on protected zones of the cultural heritage properties (monuments of history and culture) of the City of Yaroslavl” (the Project comprises the description of the territory of the Historic Centre of the City of Yaroslavl with its buffer zone and regulations within the named territories); the Order of the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation of 17 October 2012, “On the approval of the object of protection of the cultural heritage property of federal importance “Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl” and others”.
Within the management system, the process of licensing for construction and restoration works within the boundaries of the property and its buffer zone is arranged in accordance with the official legal instruments and regulations.
The Historical Centre of the City of Yaroslavl is included in the List of heritage properties of federal importance, which is managed by the Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation.
The main management challenges that will warrant attention include the development of a methodology for assessment and exploration of the historical context of the city, and for the careful preservation of architectural and town-planning integrity. In addition, procedures for evaluation and licensing of new construction and development projects which might impact the property will need to be clarified. The mechanisms for the development of Heritage Impact Assessments prior to approval of projects will need to be defined. Finally, the enforcement of regulations to ensure that the city’s horizontal skyline is maintained, as well as the strict control of design quality, scales, materials and massing of projects of new buildings and constructions inside of the boundaries of the property and its buffer zone will also need to be adequately addressed.
The historic town of Yaroslavl with its 17th-century churches and its neoclassical radial urban plan and civic architecture is an outstanding example of the interchange of cultural and architectural influences between Western Europe and the Russian Empire, coupled with the town-planning reform ordered by Empress Catherine the Great in the whole of Russia, implemented between 1763 and 1830.
Yaroslavl is situated on the Volga at its confluence with the Kotorosl River. The origins of the city go back to the early 11th century, when there was a small wooden fortress. From the 13th century it belonged to the territory of Rostov and Yaroslavl started developing: in 1463, Yaroslavl Grand Duchy joined the powerful Moscow state. After several fires, the original wooden town was gradually rebuilt in stone, starting from the 16th century. It acquired its present-day form and structure mainly as a result of the major urban reform in 1763, ordered by Catherine the Great for the whole country. Some of the existing streets and structures were retained in this renewal process, which lasted from 1770 to the 1830s.
The site consists of the historic centre of the city, the Slobody, forming roughly a half circle with radial streets from the centre. It is essentially neoclassical in style, with harmonious and uniform streetscapes. Most residential and public buildings are two to three storeys high along wide streets and urban squares. There is a large number of churches with onion cupolas, and monastic ensembles, dating from the 16th and 17th centuries and having valuable mural paintings and iconostases.
Spassky Monastery is one of the oldest monasteries found in the Upper Volga region. It was built on the site of a pagan temple in the late 12th century. The oldest surviving buildings date from the 16th century (Cathedral of Transfiguration, Refectory, Holy Gate, Bell Tower).
The Church of the Epiphany has five cupolas, and its red-brick facades are decorated with polychrome tiles; the interior was painted in 1692-93. Other churches include the Church of St Nicholas Nadein, the Church of the Nativity, with a unique bell tower, and the Church of Elijah the Prophet, which became the focus of the classicist radial town plan of Yaroslavl.
One block away from the Volga, a main avenue runs parallel to the river, crossing the Soviet (Iliinskaya) square, which forms the focal point of the historic town. The centre area is surrounded by a boulevard forming a semicircle, Ushinsky Street, built in the 17th century immediately behind the city's defences. The boulevard crosses Volkov square, the starting point for the road to Uglich.
On the embankment of Volga, there are a number of significant neoclassical buildings, e.g. the metropolitan's residence (originally built in the 1680s), Church of Saints Elijah and Tychen, Volga Tower (a defence tower from 1685), Volga Gate (early 19th-century elevations), Ensemble of the former Governor-General's house, Deduylin house, Ensemble of the Nativity (17th century).
The focal point of the Soviet Square ensemble, built in the mid-17th to 18th centuries, is the Church of Elijah the Prophet with its rich decorations and wall paintings. The buildings of the Government Offices include some of the first construction according to the 1770 town plan built in early classical style.
Volkov Square originated as a place for small traders. In the early 19th century, a theatre was built here (first in timber, then in stone); this was replaced by a new structure in 1911, still in the neoclassical style. On the square there is also one of the remaining defence towers, St Blase Tower, built from stone after a fire in the 17th century. Ushinsky Street has a number of interesting buildings in classical style. Some of these buildings have been rebuilt or renovated towards the end of the 19th century, thus representing a variety of styles, from classicism to Rococo and neoclassical.Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
The city of Yaroslavl, in 2010, will celebrate its 1000th anniversary from its foundation. Initially, there was a small wooden fortress. In the 12th century, two monasteries were built next to this: Spassky monastery on Kotorosl, and Petrovsky monastery on the Volga, and the place became an outpost of Christianity. In the 13th century, it belonged to the territory of Rostov (a town with an important bishop's residence, ‘Kremlin'). From this time, Yaroslavl started developing and it became the centre of a grand duchy. In 1463, Yaroslavl Grand Duchy joined the powerful Moscow state.
After several fires, the original wooden town was gradually rebuilt in stone starting from the 16th century. Yaroslavl grew in importance becoming the second city in the state. Through the Volga river, it was in trading contacts with Persia and India as well as with Ottoman Turks. Moscow also developed its contacts with Western European trading centres. As a result, foreign trade companies and craftsmen started arriving to establish businesses. The 17th century is considered the golden age of Yaroslavl, and for example some 50 new churches were built in stone.
In 1711 and 1762, there were several fires, which damaged the city's trading position, though its development continued. In 1769, a new town plan was adopted, revised in 1778. This plan was radial in its centre part, and based on a rectangular grid towards the west. Even though following the new guidelines imposed by the Empress, the town plan took into account the existing situation, and kept parts of the street network and historic building stock, where the most significant historical structures (churches, mediaeval towers) were used as visual and compositional dominants of a new plan.
The construction activities continued well into the 19th century, when some of the old fabric was renovated in a more formal manner in the downtown area. At the end of the 19th century, Yaroslavl once again experienced a fast growing period. This time, a number of industries were brought into the city. The number of inhabitants increased from 52,000 in 1887 to 109,000 in 1913. At this time, also a number of new functions were introduced, including hotels, restaurants, banks and offices.
In the 20th century, Yaroslavl has gone through problematic times like most other cities in Russia. The 1920s and 1930s, as well as 1960s and 1970s, have been periods with many losses particularly in religious ensembles. Also Yaroslavl had changes but fortunately much less than elsewhere. The development took place on the outskirts of the city, and relatively few new constructions came into the old centre. In the 1990s, Yaroslavl has once again started developing, but this time with full consciousness of its cultural inheritance. The churches and monasteries are being rehabilitated and opened again for worshipers. At the present, the municipal area of Yaroslavl has some 600,000 inhabitants.Source: Advisory Body Evaluation