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Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley

Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley

The cultural landscape of Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley offers a microcosmic perspective of the way people have harvested the resources of the high Pyrenees over millennia. Its dramatic glacial landscapes of craggy cliffs and glaciers, with high open pastures and steep wooded valleys, covers an area of 4,247 ha, 9% of the total area of the principality. It reflects past changes in climate, economic fortune and social systems, as well as the persistence of pastoralism and a strong mountain culture, notably the survival of a communal land-ownership system dating back to the 13th century. The site features houses, notably summer settlements, terraced fields, stone tracks and evidence of iron smelting.

La Vallée du Madriu-Perafita-Claror

Le paysage culturel de la vallée du Madriu-Perafita-Claror est un microcosme qui témoigne du génie déployé par les populations des Pyrénées au cours du millénaire pour exploiter les ressources locales. Ses paysages spectaculaires de montagnes déchiquetées et de glaciers, avec ses alpages et ses profondes vallées boisées, couvrent une zone de 4 247 ha, soit 9% de la superficie totale de l’Andorre. La vallée reflète les mutations du climat, des conditions économiques et des systèmes sociaux, ainsi que la permanence du pastoralisme et d’une forte culture montagnarde, illustrée notamment par la permanence d’un système de gestion communale des terrains datant du XIIIe siècle. Le site, dernier endroit du pays à ne pas disposer de route, comprend des habitations notamment des cabanes d’été pour les bergers, des champs en terrasse, des sentiers empierrés et des vestiges de fonderie.

وادي مادريو- بيرافيتا- كلارور

إن المنظر الثقافي في وادي مادريو- بيرافيتا- كلارور هو أشبه بعالم مصغّر يشهد على العبقرية التي أظهرتها شعوب البيرينيه خلال الألفية لاستثمار الموارد المحلية. وتغطّي هذه المناظر الطبيعية الخلابة للجبال الممزّقة الشكل ولجبال الجليد والمراعي الجبلية والوديان العميقة المشجّرة مساحة4247 هكتارا ، أي 9% من إجمالي مساحة الأندورا. أما الوادي، فيعكس تغييرات الطقس والشروط الاقتصادية والأنظمة الاجتماعية بالإضافة إلى استمرار الرعي والثقافة الجبلية المتجذّرة والتي تتمثل بشكل خاص في استمرار نظام الإدارة البلدية للأراضي التي تعود إلى القرن الثالث عشر. إن الموقع وهو آخر مكان في البلد ليس فيه طريق يشمل مساكن، لا سيما منها الأكواخ الصيفية للرعاة وحقول الزراعة والطرقات المبلّطة وبقايا مصانع السبك.

source: UNESCO/ERI

马德留-配拉菲塔-克拉罗尔大峡谷

马德留-配拉菲塔-克拉罗尔大峡谷就是几千年来人们在高高的比利牛斯山脉上辛勤劳作的缩影。这里的冰川景观壮丽迷人,到处有悬崖峭壁、冰川林立,还有那广阔的高山牧场和层林覆盖的溪谷。遗产面积达4,247公顷,占安道尔公国总面积的9%。遗产反映了气候、经济和社会的变迁,以及田园主义的生生不息和山区文化的深厚浓郁。遗产地景观主要有房舍,尤其是避暑住区,还有梯田、石头小径和炼铁遗迹。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Долина Мадриу-Перафита-Кларор

Культурный ландшафт долины Мадриу-Кларор-Перафита представляет традиционные способы ресурсопользования, практиковавшиеся на протяжении тысячелетий в высокогорной зоне Пиренеев. Впечатляющие скалистые обрывы и ледники, открытые высокогорные пастбища и глубокие залесенные ущелья занимают 4 247 га, или 9% общей площади Андорры. Ландшафт отражает изменения климата, экономических условий и социальной системы в прошлом, а также демонстрирует устойчивость традиционного пастушеского уклада жизни. Здесь можно обнаружить летние жилища, террасированные поля, вымощенные камнем тропы и следы железоплавильного производства.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Valle del Madriu-Perafita-Claror

El paisaje cultural del Valle del Madriu-Perafita-Claror es un microcosmos sumamente representativo de la manera en que el hombre ha aprovechado los recursos de las zonas altas de la cordillera de los Pirineos a lo largo de milenios. Sus espectaculares paisajes de laderas escarpadas y glaciares con vastas praderas y abruptos valles boscosos cubren una superficie total de 4.247 hectáreas, es decir el 9% del territorio de Andorra. Estos paisajes no sólo constituyen testimonios de los cambios climáticos del planeta, sino también de los avatares económicos y de los sistemas sociales de sus habitantes, así como de la perdurabilidad del pastoreo y de la pujanza de la cultura montañesa. El sitio, que es el único lugar de Andorra sin carreteras, posee además diversos hábitats humanos –en particular, asentamientos estivales de pastores–, así como cultivos en terrazas, senderos de piedra y vestigios del trabajo de fundición del hierro.

source: UNESCO/ERI

マデリウ-ペラフィタ-クラーロル渓谷

source: NFUAJ

Madriu-Perafita-Claror vallei

Het culturele landschap van de Madriu-Perafita-Claror vallei geeft op een microkosmische manier weer hoe mensen millennia lang gebruik maakten van de middelen en bronnen van de hoge Pyreneeën. De spectaculaire glaciale landschappen – steile rotsen en gletsjers , open weiden en steile, beboste rotswanden – beslaan ruim 4 hectare. Dat is 9% van de totale oppervlakte van Andorra. De vallei weerspiegelt niet alleen de doorgemaakte klimaatveranderingen, maar ook de aanwezigheid van economische voorspoed, sociale stelsels, langdurige veeteelt en een bergcultuur. In de vallei zijn woningen te vinden – vooral zomernederzettingen – terrassen, stenen sporen en aanwijzigen dat er ijzer gesmolten werd.

Source: unesco.nl

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Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley © Permanent Delegation - Andorra
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis 

The Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley is an exceptional geographical unit located in the south-eastern part of the Principality of Andorra, in the heart of the Pyrenees. It covers an area of 4,247 ha or a little more than 9% of the national territory. A protective buffer zone of 4,092 ha surrounds this area.

The upper part of the valley is an exposed glacial landscape, with spectacular steep cliffs, rock and lake glaciers. Lower down, the valley narrows and becomes more wooded, while in its lowest section the river flows into a short gorge. A secondary valley, the Perafita-Claror Valley, merges with the Madriu Valley from the South-West.

The Madriu-Perfita-Claror Valley is a microcosm that illustrates the way in which man has harvested the mountain resources over the past millennia. It also reflects the persistence of an ancient communal system of land management – four communities own land within the property. Its spectacular glacial landscapes with vast pastures and wooded valleys reflect climate change, the economy and social systems, as well as the persistence of pastoralism and a strong mountain culture. The property, the last place in the country not to have roads, comprises amongst others diverse agro-pastoral complexes in the high mountain, agricultural centres in mid-mountain areas, a communication system based on a network of partially paved trails and the vestiges of a specific steelmaking activity: the Catalan Forge.

More precisely, the inscribed site contains many traces of human occupation that express in a singular manner the perfect symbiosis and the precious balance between the land and humankind, between their resources and their needs; among these, bornes or small huts with vaulted stone roofs, some of which are still used by shepherds; orris in ruin, stables and cheese dairies, houses with side barns where grain and hay were stored; traces of terraced fields and foundries; low stone walls and paved tracks, etc.

Criterion (v) : The Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley is a microcosm of the way the inhabitants have harvested the scarce resources of the high Pyrenees over the past millennia to create a sustainable living environment in harmony with the mountain landscape. The valley is a reflection of an ancient communal system of land management that has survived over 700 years.

Integrity

The integrity of the Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley is based on the geographical and historical uniqueness that characterizes it.

The Valley forms a coherent unit of 4,247 ha combining cultural and natural values. In this encyclopaedic and essential landscape, the sedimentation of the physical and human experience is continuous. The buffer zones, including the extension in 2006 to the international border between Andorra and Spain, have enabled the protection of the entire property.

Authenticity

The Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley bears an extraordinarily well-preserved and complete testimony to a way of life and relationship between people and their land, between nature and culture.

In the Valley, a distinctive relationship between the populations and nature is evident. Based on respect for the environment and its emblematic character, this relationship has never faltered among the local population. Its character is defined by the wise use of the resources offered by the mountain and by the deep respect for the associated values and qualities. The customary standards that have preserved it and that rule it are the result of this symbiosis between man and his environment. The Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley conserves its qualities intact. Historically preserved because of its distance from urban pressure areas and, for the most part, the absence of any road, the few interventions that could affect its authenticity, such as the use of some construction materials or the presence of mobile huts that do not conform to the heritage character of the Valley, are perfectly reversible.

Protection and management requirements

Listed as property of cultural interest in the category of cultural landscapes, in 2005, the Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley is protected by the Law 9/2003 for cultural heritage of Andorra. In 2006, the protection zone prescribed by the Law was harmonized with the buffer zone.

With regard to the management of the property, in agreement with the Law and the Declaration and Protection Decrees, the four local administrations concerned with the management of the Valley drafted and approved a management document that was validated by the Andorran Government. The Management Plan for the Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley entered into force on 28 December 2011, and foresees the preservation of the cultural landscape, the biodiversity, the fauna and the flora. In accordance with efficient conservation goals, it controls the associated objectives and establishes the development of sustainable activities. In particular, it emphasizes the need to maintain traditional activities such as agriculture, which has noticeably declined and will require revitalization and support programmes so that the cultural landscape of the Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley remains a living landscape and conserves the authenticity provided by the continuance of these cultural practices. Additionally, priority was given to the realization of an overall access strategy.

Long Description

Madriu-Perafita-Claror Valley offers a microcosmic perspective of the way people have harvested the resources of the high Pyrenees over millennia. Its dramatic glacial landscapes of craggy cliffs and glaciers, with high open pastures and steep wooded valleys, covers an area of 4,247 ha, 9% of the total area of Andorra. It reflects past changes in climate, economic fortune and social systems, as well as the persistence of pastoralism and a strong mountain culture. The site features houses, notably summer settlements, terraced fields, stone tracks, and evidence of iron smelting.

It has maintained intact its structures of organization and management of space since medieval times. Since then there has been no substantial alteration of the geopolitical and territorial model, which is why it has come down as a living witness to the history of Andorra and the coexistence between the men of the mountains and an extraordinary natural environment.

The most striking natural heritage elements are the glacial geomorphology (U-shaped valley, glacial circuses, the lake system of Gargantillar-Els Estanys, Estany de la Nou, rock glaciers, the hanging valley of Estany Blau, etc.), the post-alpine plateaux of Calm de Claror, the dynamics of avalanches, the vegetation associated with water (wet moorlands and peat bogs, riparian woodland, etc.), and various threatened vertebrate species (bearded vulture, capercaillie, ptarmigan, Tengmalm's owl, dotterel, Pyrenean desman, etc.). The lichens of the circus of Estanyons have served to obtain the first dating of the Little Ice Age in the Eastern Pyrenees, showing the relevance of this cold period to European history.

Like most of the territory of Europe, the valley is not virgin land. Man has used it, crossed it, and enjoyed it for centuries, moulding a landscape in which his imprint is everywhere present. The main historical uses of this zone were farming (tillage, animal husbandry, forestry), iron working and hydroelectric power. As a result, numerous human elements have survived to make up the cultural landscape of the valley. The structure of the vegetation has also been modified by all these activities, the imprint of which can be read indirectly from meadows sited on forest land, terraces made on steep slopes, or birch woodland replacing old-growth pine.

The cultural heritage elements linked to traditional farming are the best represented: barns (Ràmio, Entremesaigües), terraces, shepherds' huts, sheep pens, drystone walls, milking stalls, etc., and a network of irrigation ditches in tillage zones. The remains of the Forge of Andorra (at an altitude of 1,900 m), the mines at La Maiana and Claror and the numerous charcoal-making sites in the woods bear witness to iron working. The use of hydroelectric resources began in the 1930s, generating its own infrastructure with two dams (L'Illa and Ràmio) and an underground conduit linking Ràmio to the lake at Engolasters. The stone path of the Madriu links all these activities, at the same time a symbol of and unique witness to the presence of man in the valley and forms one of the most characteristic and outstanding values of this cultural landscape.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

According to tradition, in recognition of the support its people gave him against the Saracens, Charlemagne founded Andorra in 805 when he made the bishop of Urgell its overlord. The French counts of Foix contested this overlordship, and finally in 1278 an agreement was reached providing joint suzerainty and the establishment of the principality of Andorra.

Andorra was governed from 1419 by a Council, Consell de la Terra , with representatives from all the Communes. In 1981 the Consell Executiu , the Andorran Government, was established, and in 1993 Andorra joined the United Nations. The President of France and the Bishop of Urgell remain titular co-princes.

For 715 years, from 1278 to 1993, the Andorrans thus lived under a unique, stable co-principality. This long period of stability (fortified houses were apparently demolished in the 13th century as part of the ‘arbitration’ awards) and the relative remoteness of its mountain terrain, meant that Andorra remained a rural state with the economy based largely on livestock farming. These factors also encouraged the persistence of strong cultural traditions related to mountain living.

Change came swiftly from the mid-20th century with the development of low-tax shopping in the main town of Andorra la Vella. Between 1960 and 2000 the population grew from 8000 to 70,000, with today around 33% being Andorrans. In the last twenty years, large ski resorts have been developed.

The Madriu-Perafita-Claror valley is the last remaining vestige of the Andorran rural way of life. It appears to have survived more by chance than planning through the absence of any access road. The Government is now committed to retaining this distinctiveness, through not allowing the development of a road, while at the same time putting measures in place to allow the valley to be part of the Andorran agricultural economy, through encouraging high quality livestock based on sustainable regimes.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation
Activities (1)