jump to the content

Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri and Tarquinia

Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri and Tarquinia

These two large Etruscan cemeteries reflect different types of burial practices from the 9th to the 1st century BC, and bear witness to the achievements of Etruscan culture. Which over nine centuries developed the earliest urban civilization in the northern Mediterranean. Some of the tombs are monumental, cut in rock and topped by impressive tumuli (burial mounds). Many feature carvings on their walls, others have wall paintings of outstanding quality. The necropolis near Cerveteri, known as Banditaccia, contains thousands of tombs organized in a city-like plan, with streets, small squares and neighbourhoods. The site contains very different types of tombs: trenches cut in rock; tumuli; and some, also carved in rock, in the shape of huts or houses with a wealth of structural details. These provide the only surviving evidence of Etruscan residential architecture. The necropolis of Tarquinia, also known as Monterozzi, contains 6,000 graves cut in the rock. It is famous for its 200 painted tombs, the earliest of which date from the 7th century BC.

Nécropoles étrusques de Cerveteri et de Tarquinia

Ces deux grandes nécropoles étrusques reflètent divers types de pratiques funéraires entre le IXe et le Ier siècle avant J.C. et comptent parmi les plus beaux témoignages du monde étrusque, cette civilisation urbaine du nord de la Méditerranée. Certaines tombes du site sont monumentales, taillées dans la roche et surmontées d’impressionnants tumuli. Nombre d’entre elles comportent des bas-reliefs, tandis que d’autres renferment de remarquables peintures murales. La nécropole proche de Cerveteri, connue comme Banditaccia, comprend des milliers de tombes disposées selon un plan quasi urbain, avec des quartiers, rues et petites places. Les tombes sont de divers types : tranchées creusées dans le roc, tumuli, ou d’autres taillées dans la roche en forme de cabane ou de maison avec un luxe de détails architecturaux. Elles constituent l’unique témoignage qui nous soit parvenu de l’architecture résidentielle étrusque. La nécropole de Tarquinia, également appelée Monterozzi, contient 6000 tombes creusées dans la roche. Elle est célèbre pour ses 200 tombes peintes, dont les plus anciennes remontent au VIIe siècle avant J.C.

المقابر الأترورية في تشيرفيتيري وتاركينيا

تعكس هاتان المقبرتان الأتروريتان الكبيرتان أنواعًا متعددة من الممارسات الجنائزية بين القرن التاسع والقرن الأول ف.م. وتعتبَر من أجمل الشهادات في العالم الأتروريّ، أي تلك الحضارة الحضرية في شمال المتوسط. كما أن بعض قبور الموقع هائلة منحوتة في الصخر وتعلوها رُكَم مذهلة. ويحتوي كثير منها على نُقيشات بينما تحوي أخرى رسومًا جدارية مذهلة. فالمقبرة القريبة من "تشيرفيتيري" المعروفة بـ"بانديتاتشا" ، تحتوي على آلاف القبور المصفوفة حسب خطة شبه حضرية، مع أحياء، وشوارع وساحات صغيرة. والقبور من أنواع مختلفة: خنادق محفورة في الصخر، ورُكَم، أو أخرى منحوتة في الصخر بشكل أكواخ أو بيوت مع إسهاب بالتفاصيل الهندسية. وهي تشكل الشهادة الوحيدة التي وصلتنا من الهندسة المعمارية السكنية الأترورية. أما مقبرة "تاركينيا" والتي تسمّى أيضًا "مونتيروتزي" فهي تحتوي على 6000 قبر محفور في الصخر. وهي مشهورة بقبورها الـ 200 الرسومة والتي يعود أقدمها إلى القرن السابع ق.م.

source: UNESCO/ERI

塞尔维托里和塔尔奎尼亚的伊特鲁立亚人公墓

这两座巨大的伊特鲁立亚人墓葬反映了公元前9世纪至公元前1世纪不同的墓葬形式,是伊特鲁立亚文化成就的见证。它们在九个多世纪里推动了地中海北部地区最早的城市文明的发展。有些坟墓以岩石刻成,上面是给人深刻印象的墓丘。坟墓的墙壁上有很多质量精美的壁画和岩石雕刻。靠近塞尔维托里的墓地又以公墓见称,包括数千个以类似城市规划的模式安置的墓地,带有街道、小广场和邻近居所。这里有不同类型的墓葬: 岩刻沟渠和坟墓,也有一些石刻的棚屋或房舍形状的墓室,带有许多更加精致的建筑结构。这些是伊特鲁立亚人民居建筑的仅存证明。塔尔奎尼亚墓葬群一般称之为曼特罗契(Monterozzi),包括了6000座岩石刻成的坟墓。其中200座有壁画的墓葬最著名,最早的可以追溯到公元前7世纪。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Этрусские некрополи близ Черветери и Тарквинии

Эти два больших этрусских кладбища отражают различные способы захоронения в период IX-I вв. до н.э. Некоторые из гробниц монументальны, они выбиты в скале, а сверху покрыты мощными земляными насыпями – «тумули». На стенах многих гробниц нанесены различные изображения прекрасного качества, вырезанные или расписные. Некрополь около Черветери, известный как Бандитаччия, содержит тысячи гробниц, размещенных по плану, подобному городскому, т.е. с улицами, небольшими площадями и кварталами. Некрополь Тарквинии, также известный как Монтероцци, включает около 6 тыс. каменных могил, вырубленных прямо в скалах. Он славится своими 200 расписанными гробницами, самая ранняя из которых датируется VII в. до н.э.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Necrópolis etruscas de Cerveteri y Tarquinia

Estas dos grandes necrópolis son testigos de los distintos ritos funerarios practicados por los etruscos desde los siglos IX a I a.C. y son una de los mejores testimonios de la cultura de este pueblo, creador de la primera civilización urbana del norte del Mediterráneo Algunas de sus tumbas, excavadas en la roca y rematadas por túmulos impresionantes, son grandiosas. Muchas de ellas están ornadas con bajorrelieves o pinturas murales de calidad excepcional. La necrópolis de Banditaccia, situada en las cercanías de la localidad de Cerveteri, posee miles de tumbas cuya disposición está organizada en función de un trazado análogo al plan urbanístico de una ciudad, con sus barrios, calles y plazuelas. Las tumbas de este cementerio son de tipos muy diferentes: túmulos, zanjas excavadas en la piedra y oquedades practicadas en la roca en forma de chozas o casas con gran profusión de elementos estructurales, que hacen de ellas los únicos vestigios existentes de la arquitectura residencial etrusca. La necrópolis de Tarquinia, conocida con el nombre de Monterozzi, posee 6.000 sepulcros cavados en la roca y es famosa por los 200 que están ornados con pinturas. Las sepulturas más antiguas datan del siglo VII a.C.

source: UNESCO/ERI

チェルヴェテリとタルキニアのエトルリア古代都市群

source: NFUAJ

Etruskische necropolissen van Cerveteri en Tarquinia

De Etruskische begraafplaatsen weerspiegelen verschillende soorten begrafenispraktijken van de 9e tot de 1e eeuw voor Christus en getuigen van de verworvenheden van de Etruskische cultuur. Deze ontwikkelde gedurende ruim negen eeuwen de vroegste stedelijke beschaving in het noordelijk Middellandse Zeegebied. Sommige graven zijn uit rotsen gekerfd en bekroond met tumuli (grafheuvels). Veel grafkamers hebben houtsnijwerk of schilderingen op hun muren. De necropolis in de buurt van Cerveteri (Banditaccia) bevat duizenden graven georganiseerd in een stadachtige indeling, met straatjes, pleintjes en buurten. De necropolis van Tarquinia (Monterozzi) telt 6.000 rotsgraven waarvan er 200 beschilderd zijn. De oudste dateert uit de 7e eeuw vóór Christus.

Source: unesco.nl

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
  • Japanese
  • Dutch
Etruscan Necropolises of Cerveteri and Tarquinia © UNESCO
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (i): The necropolises of Tarquinia and Cerveteri are masterpieces of creative genius: Tarquinia's large-scale wall paintings are exceptional both for their formal qualities and for their content, which reveal aspects of life, death, and religious beliefs of the ancient Etruscans. Cerveteri shows in a funerary context the same town planning and architectural schemes used in an ancient city.

Criterion (iii): The two necropolises constitute a unique and exceptional testimony to the ancient Etruscan civilisation, the only urban type of civilisation in pre-Roman Italy. Moreover, the depiction of daily life in the frescoed tombs, many of which are replicas of Etruscan houses, is a unique testimony to this vanished culture.

Criterion (iv): Many of the tombs of Tarquinia and Cerveteri represent types of buildings which no longer exist in any other form. The cemeteries, replicas of Etruscan town planning schemes, are some of the earliest existing in the region.

Long Description

The necropolises of Tarquinia and Cerveteri constitute a unique and exceptional testimony to the ancient Etruscan civilization, the only urban civilization in pre-Roman Italy. Moreover, the depiction of daily life in the frescoed tombs, many of which are replicas of Etruscan houses, is a unique testimony to this vanished culture. Many of the tombs represent types of buildings that no longer exist in any other form. The cemeteries, replicas of Etruscan town planning schemes, are some of the earliest existing in the region. The necropolis of Cerveteri (Banditaccia) developed from the 9th century BC. It expanded from the 7th century onwards, following a precise plan. The ancient history and development of the Tarquinia (Monterozzi) necropolis is similar.

The Etruscans lived in west-central Italy from the 9th century BC onwards. Their culture reached its height in the 6th century BC. There is no definite answer to the question of the origins of these people. It is certain that no community of the same ethnic and social characteristics occurred elsewhere in Europe or Asia. They spoke a non-Indo-European language of unknown origin.

Each of these cemeteries is different in the characteristics of the tombs and therefore covers together the Etruscan burial culture.

Thousands of tombs exist in the vast cemetery of Cerveteri: they are organized in a city-like plan, with 'streets', small squares and 'neighbourhoods'. The tombs are of different types depending on period, family status and other criteria. The earliest known are series of rock-cut trenches holding pottery ossuaries containing the ashes of the deceased. Most famous are the tumuli - tombs often containing more than one tomb under an imposing mound. A famous example is known as the 'Hut Shaped Tomb', from the 4th century. It presents an excellent rock-cut hut with all structural and building elements, such as gabled roof, main crossbeam, wood and straw roofing materials as well as stone couches next to the walls. This tomb and others, imitating houses, are the best and only evidence of the residential architecture of the Etruscans. The 6th-century Tomb of the Greek Vases is accessible through a rock-cut dromos (corridor) that imitates an Etruscan temple. The Tomb of the Moulding (cornice) has two thrones with footstools, cut in the rock, at the sides of its door. It also imitates a contemporary domestic interior. The Tomb of the Capitals has an imitation wooden floor on its ceiling. The most famous among the thousands of the Banditaccia tombs is the 'Tomb of Reliefs'. This 4th-century tomb is accessible via a long rock-cut stairway leading to a large hall with a ceiling supported by two columns with Aeolic capitals. It includes 13 double funerary niches and additional place for 34 bodies on a specially carved ledge. The 13 niches have double cushions with red painted stucco. Many objects are depicted on the stuccoed walls, including weapons and domestic and religious ones.

The other cemetery, known as Monterozzi or the necropolis of Tarquinia, is famous for its painted tombs. The tombs are all cut in the rock and accessible via sloping or stepped corridors. Most of them were made for a single couple and constitute one burial chamber. The earliest painted tombs are from the 7th century but only in the 6th century were they fully developed and completely covered with painting. The 4th-century Tomb of the Lionesses consists of a small chamber with gabled roof. The painting depicts flying birds and dolphins and scenes from the life of the Etruscan aristocracy. The 6th-century Tomb of the Hunting Pavilion shows the view seen through the transparent fabric of the pavilion. The Hunting and Fishing Tomb is composed of two chambers. In the first, there is a depiction of Dionysian dancing in a sacred wood, and in the second, a hunting and fishing scene and portraits of the tomb owners. The painted tombs of the aristocracy, as well as more simple ones, are extraordinary evidence of what objects cannot show: daily life, ceremonies and mythology as well as artistic abilities.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The necropolis of Cerveteri (Banditaccia) developed from the 9th century BCE. It expanded from the 7th century on, following a precise plan. The ancient history and development of the Tarquinia (Monterozzi) necropolis is similar.

Earliest evidence of ‘modern' interest in the tombs comes from the Renaissance. It grew in the 17th and 18th centuries, when scholars and artists started to describe and paint the tombs. In the first half of the 19th century the Tarquinia cemetery was studied by scholars and this is when most of the tombs known today were discovered. The site was visited in 1834 by Ludwig I from Bavaria, who ordered the reproduction of the paintings, to decorate the new Alte Pinakothek in Munich.

Since the 1950s research has been carried out using geophysical, non intrusive methods.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation