English Français

Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe

Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe

This transnational property includes 94 component parts in 18 countries. Since the end of the last Ice Age, European Beech spread from a few isolated refuge areas in the Alps, Carpathians, Dinarides, Mediterranean and Pyrenees over a short period of a few thousand years in a process that is still ongoing. The successful expansion across a whole continent is related to the tree’s adaptability and tolerance of different climatic, geographical and physical conditions.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Forêts primaires et anciennes de hêtres des Carpates et d’autres régions d’Europe

Ce bien transnational, composé de 94 éléments constitutifs, s’étend sur 18 pays. Depuis la fin de la dernière période glaciaire, le hêtre d’Europe s’est répandu à partir de quelques refuges isolés dans les Alpes, les Carpates, les Dinarides, la Méditerranée et les Pyrénées, en l’espace de quelques milliers d’années, un processus qui se poursuit encore aujourd’hui. Le succès de la progression du hêtre s’explique par son adaptabilité et sa tolérance à différentes conditions climatiques, géographiques et physiques.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

غابات الزان القديمة وغابات الزان البدائية لمنطقة الكربات وغيرها من مناطق أوروبا

يُعتبر توسيع الموقع المتسلسل العابر للحدود الوطنية لموقع "غابات الزان البدائية في منطقة الكاربات ومناطق أخرى في أوروبا" عبر عشرة بلدان أوروبية إضافية، بمثابة جرعة تعزيز للقيمة العالمية الاستثنائية للموقع وسلامته. ويضم الموقع الموسّع حالياً 94 عنصراً موزَّعاً في 18 بلداً، ويقدّم مثالاً استثنائياً للغابات المداريّة المعقدة التي تنعم بالهدوء نوعاً ما. ويستعرض الموقع طيفاً واسعاً من النماذج البيئية الشاملة، فضلاً عن العمليات البيئيّة الإيكولوجيّة للأنواع النقيّة والمختلطة للزان الأوروبي في سلسلة متنوعة من الظروف البيئية.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

喀尔巴阡山脉及欧洲其它地区的原始山毛榉林

此次扩展将有10个欧洲国家新加入“喀尔巴阡山脉及欧洲其它地区的原始山毛榉林”这一跨境世界遗产项目,提升了该遗产地的突出普遍价值和完整性,至此该遗产地包含分布在18个国家的94个部分。扩展后的遗产地是相对未受干扰的温带森林群的杰出范例,展示了在各种环境条件下欧洲山毛榉纯林和混交林的广泛综合生态模式和过程。

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Древние и первобытные буковые леса Карпат и других регионов Европы

Расширение территории транснационального серийного объекта всемирного наследия «Древние и первобытные буковые леса Карпат и других регионов Европы» еще на десять европейских стран повышает исключительную универсальную ценность и целостность объекта, который теперь состоит из 94 составных частей в 18 странах. Расширенная территория объекта представляет собой выдающийся пример относительно нетронутых сложных лесов умеренного пояса и демонстрирует широкий спектр комплексных экологических моделей и процессов чистых и смешанных европейских буковых насаждений в различных экологических условиях.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

Bosques antiguos y primarios de hayas de los Cárpatos y otras regiones de Europa

La ampliación del sitio transnacional en serie del Patrimonio Mundial de los Bosques antiguos y Primarios de hayas de los Cárpatos y otras regiones de Europa por parte de diez países europeos suma valor universal excepcional e integridad del sitio, que ahora comprende 94 partes componentes en 18 países. El sitio ampliado representa un ejemplo sobresaliente de bosques templados relativamente inalterados y complejos y exhibe un amplio espectro de patrones y procesos ecológicos integrales de rodales puros y mixtos de haya europea en una variedad de condiciones ambientales.

source: UNESCO/ERI
Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0

  • English
  • French
  • Arabic
  • Chinese
  • Russian
  • Spanish
Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (extension 2021). Massane split beech. © RNN Forêt de la Massane
Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The “Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe” are a transnational serial property comprising 94 component parts across 18 countries. They represent an outstanding example of relatively undisturbed, complex temperate forests and exhibit a wide spectrum of comprehensive ecological patterns and processes of pure and mixed stands of European beech across a variety of environmental conditions. During each glacial phase (ice ages) of the last 1 million years, European beech (Fagus sylvatica) survived the unfavourable climatic conditions in refuge areas in the southern parts of the European continent. These refuge areas have been documented by scientists through palaeoecological analysis and using the latest techniques in genetic coding. After the last Ice Age, around 11,000 years ago, beech started expanding its range from these southern refuge areas to eventually cover large parts of the European continent. During this expansion process, which is still ongoing, beech formed different types of plant communities while occupying largely different environments. The interplay between a diversity of environments, climatic gradients and different species gene pools has and continues to shape this high diversity of beech forest communities. These forests contain an invaluable population of old trees and a genetic reservoir of beech and many other species, which are associated with and dependent on these old-growth forest habitats.

Criterion (ix): The property is indispensable for the understanding of the history and evolution of the genus Fagus which, given its wide distribution in the Northern Hemisphere and its ecological importance, is globally significant. These largely undisturbed, complex temperate forests exhibit comprehensive ecological patterns and processes of pure and mixed stands of European beech across a variety of environmental gradients, including climatic and geological conditions, spanning almost all European Beech Forest Regions. Forests are included from all altitudinal zones from coastal areas to the treeline and, include the best remaining examples from the range limits of the European beech forest. Beech is one of the most important features in the Temperate Broadleaf Forest Biome and represents an outstanding example of the re-colonization and development of terrestrial ecosystems and communities since the last Ice Age. The continuing northern and westward expansion of beech from its original glacial refuge areas in the eastern and southern parts of Europe can be tracked along natural corridors and stepping stones spanning the continent. The dominance of beech across extensive areas of Europe is a living testimony of the tree’s genetic adaptability, a process which is still ongoing.

Integrity

The selected component parts represent the diversity of ancient and primeval beech forests found across Europe in terms of different climatic and geological conditions and altitudinal zones. The property includes component parts, which convey its Outstanding Universal Value (OUV), and represent the variability of European beech forest ecosystems. Together these component parts contribute to the integrity of the property as a whole. Additionally, each component part needs to demonstrate integrity at the local level by representing the full suite of natural forest development processes in its particular geographical and ecological setting within the series. Most of the component parts are of sufficient size to maintain such natural processes necessary for their long-term ecological viability.

The most significant threats to the property are logging and habitat fragmentation. Logging activities in the vicinity of component parts can cause microclimatic changes and nutrient mobilising effects, with negative impacts on the integrity of the property. Land use change in the surrounding landscapes can lead to increased habitat fragmentation, which would be of particular concern for smaller component parts. Infrastructure development is a potential threat only in the surroundings of a few component parts.

Climate change already poses a risk to some component parts and further impacts can be anticipated, including changes in species composition and habitat shifting. However, it should be noted that one of the attributes of the Outstanding Universal Value of the property is its demonstration of the ability of beech to adapt to different ecological and climatic regimes throughout its range. Therefore, potential future changes need to be monitored and documented in order to better understand these processes.

The above-mentioned threats may affect the integrity of the component parts to a different extent and in different ways, for example through the reduction of structural diversity, fragmentation, loss of connectivity, biomass loss and changed microclimate, which reduce ecosystem functionality and adaptive capacity as a whole. To cope with these threats, buffer zones are established and are managed accordingly by the responsible management bodies.

Protection and management requirements

A strict non-intervention management is essential for the conservation of the OUV of this serial property across all its component parts. The majority of the 94 component parts are protected by law as strict forest reserves, wilderness areas, core areas of biosphere reserves or national parks (IUCN category I or II). Some of the component parts are protected and managed by Forest Management Plans (with regulations ensuring no logging in old-growth forests). As it is of uppermost importance to guarantee strong protection status in the long term, the protection status will be improved where needed.

To ensure the viability of the four component parts smaller than the established minimum size of 50 ha, an enlargement of the component parts with further non-intervention management will be considered by the States Parties. Additionally, an effective management of buffer zones to protect the property from external threats and to safeguard its integrity is of uppermost importance.

The integrity of each component part is the responsibility of the State Party and is ensured by the relevant local management units. For the coherent protection and management of the property, as well as to coordinate activities between the management units and the 18 States Parties, a functional organisational structure should be established. To ensure this aspect, an Integrated Management System was developed during the nomination process and will be maintained to allow effective and coordinated management and protection of the property as a whole. The Joint Management Committee, comprising representatives of all States Parties, formulated a Joint Declaration of Intent. This Declaration regulates and structures the cooperation between all the States Parties whose territory is included in the property and ensures the commitment to protect and strengthen the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. The position of a coordinator will be established and maintained to support the Joint Management Committee and the States Parties in their work.

The Integrated Management System and the management plans of the component parts will ensure a non-intervention management approach for the component parts while the buffer zones will be managed to avoid negative impacts on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property with a specific focus on ensuring integrity remains intact. To harmonise the management approach across the 94 component parts, the States Parties will develop common objectives and coordinated activities which will cover property and buffer zone management, monitoring and research, education and awareness raising, visitor management and tourism as well as financial and human capacity building. It is proposed to establish a coherent monitoring system based on selected ecological (proxy) indicators of integrity within all component parts to compare long-term development. It is imperative that each State Party provides clear and committed long-term funding arrangements, to support consistent national site management as well as coordinated management.

Special attention is required to ensure the configuration of the property such that each component part retains ongoing viability to evolve with unimpeded ecological and biological processes and without the need for substantial interventions. This includes the integration of surrounding forest ecosystems to provide sufficient protection and connectivity, especially for small component parts. All component parts have buffer zones of various configurations including surrounding protected areas (national parks, nature parks, biosphere reserves and others). These buffer zones will be regularly monitored to ensure protection under changing environmental conditions such as climate change. The boundaries of buffer zones should, where possible, be aligned with existing protected area boundaries and should be expanded to connect component parts where they are in close proximity. Finally, where appropriate, special ongoing emphasis is needed to ensure effective ecological connectivity between beech forests and the surrounding complementary habitats to allow natural development and adaptation of the forest to the environmental change.