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Fujian Tulou

Fujian Tulou

Fujian Tulou is a property of 46 buildings constructed between the 15th and 20th centuries over 120 km in south-west of Fujian province, inland from the Taiwan Strait. Set amongst rice, tea and tobacco fields the Tulou are earthen houses. Several storeys high, they are built along an inward-looking, circular or square floor plan as housing for up to 800 people each. They were built for defence purposes around a central open courtyard with only one entrance and windows to the outside only above the first floor. Housing a whole clan, the houses functioned as village units and were known as “a little kingdom for the family” or “bustling small city.” They feature tall fortified mud walls capped by tiled roofs with wide over-hanging eaves. The most elaborate structures date back to the 17th and 18th centuries. The buildings were divided vertically between families with each disposing of two or three rooms on each floor. In contrast with their plain exterior, the inside of the tulou were built for comfort and were often highly decorated. They are inscribed as exceptional examples of a building tradition and function exemplifying a particular type of communal living and defensive organization, and, in terms of their harmonious relationship with their environment, an outstanding example of human settlement.

Tulou du Fujian

Le site des Tulou du Fujian, comprend 46 maisons de terre, construites entre le XVe et le XXe siècle et disséminées sur plus de 120 km dans le sud-ouest de la province de Fujian, dans l’arrière-pays du détroit de Taiwan. Dressées au milieu de rizières, de champs de thé ou de tabac, les tulou sont des habitations en terre de plusieurs étages. Circulaires ou carrées, elles sont orientées vers l’intérieur et pouvaient abriter jusqu’à 800 personnes. Elles ont été construites dans un but défensif, autour d’une cour centrale avec des fenêtres ouvertes vers l’extérieur seulement à partir du 1er étage et une seule entrée. Servant d’habitation à tout le clan, les tulou fonctionnaient comme des entités villageoises et étaient aussi appelées « petits royaumes familiaux » ou « petites villes prospères ». Les tulou présentent des murs de boue fortifiés couverts par des toits de tuiles avec de larges avant-toits en surplomb. Les constructions les plus élaborées datent des XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. Les bâtiments étaient divisés verticalement entre les familles qui disposaient chacune de deux ou trois pièces à chaque étage. Contrastant avec l’aspect sobre de l’extérieur, l’intérieur des tulou étaient conçu pour le confort et souvent richement décoré. Ces édifices sont inscrits en tant qu’exemples de bâtiments exceptionnels de par leur taille, leur tradition de construction et leur fonction, ils constituent un exemple unique de peuplement humain, fondé sur une vie en communauté et des besoins défensifs tout en maintenant une relation harmonieuse avec leur environnement.

فوجيان تولو

يشمل الموقع 46 بيتاً من الطين، بُنيت بين القرنين الثاني عشر والعشرين ضمن مساحة 120 كلم، في جنوب غرب مقاطعة فوجيان وبعيداً عن مضيق تايوان. تقع المباني ذات الطوابق المتعددة وسط حقول الأرزّ والشاي والتبغ، وتحيط بها غابات الصنوبر شبه الاستوائية، والتنوب الصيني، والسرو، والكافور، وهي مبنيَّة تبعاً لتصميم تربيعي أو دائري، ومتجه نحو الداخل. كما أن كل مبنى قادر على إيواء 800 شخص. أقيمت هذه المنازل الجماعية لأغراض دفاعية حول فناء مركزي مفتوح، ولها نوافذ قليلة تطل على الخارج ومدخل واحد فحسب. كانت المباني تؤوي جماعات بأكملها وتستخدَم كوحدات سكنية في القرى، وتعرَف بـ"المملكة الصغيرة للعائلة" أو "المدينة الصغيرة التي تعج بالحركة". تحوي المنازل جدراناً طويلة مصنوعة من الطين المحصَّن ويعلوها سقف من القرميد. تعود البنى الأكثر إتقاناً وتطوراً إلى القرنين السابع عشر والثامن عشر. وقد قسِّمت المباني عمودياً بين العائلات، فكان في تصرف كل عائلة غرفتان أو ثلاث من كل طابق. وبخلاف أسلوبها الخارجي البسيط، فإن داخل منازل "تولو" مبني لتأمين وسائل الراحة وغالباً ما يتميز بزخرفة عالية. أدرجت منازل "تولو" بوصفها أمثلة استثنائية لأسلوب البناء القائم على التقاليد والطابع الوظيفي معاً، مما يعكس استجابة المجتمع لمختلف المراحل المتعاقبة في التاريخ الاقتصادي والاجتماعي. كما أنها تمثل نوعاً خاصاً من السكن الجماعي والتنظيم الدفاعي، ومثلاً رائعاً عن الاستيطان البشري القائم على الانسجام مع البيئة المحيطة به  

source: UNESCO/ERI

福建土楼

source: UNESCO/ERI

Тулоу провинции Фуцзянь

комплекс из 46 земляных зданий, построенных между XII и XX столетиями и расположенных на территории протяженностью в более чем 120 км во внутренней, юго-западной, части провинции Фуцзянь, омываемой водами Тайванского пролива. Окруженные субтропическими лесами (сосны, китайская ель, кипарисы и камфорное дерево) и возвышающиеся среди рисовых полей, чайных и табачных плантаций, эти многоэтажные квадратные или кругообразные постройки, обращенные внутрь, вмещали до 800 человек. Родовые строения тулоу возводились в защитных целях вокруг единого центрального двора и снаружи имели только один вход и несколько окон. Эти здания, вмещавшие целые родовые общины, выполняли функции отдельных деревень и были известны как "малые семейные королевства" или "процветающие городки". Для построек характерны высокие укрепленные земляные стены, увенчанные черепичными крышами с широкими карнизами. Самые сложные структуры относятся к XVII-XVIII векам. Помещения распределялись между семьями в вертикальном порядке, то есть каждая семья имела по две-три комнаты на каждом этаже. Незатейливые снаружи, тулоу были нередко богато украшены внутри и благоустроены. Тулоу провинции Фуцзянь внесены в Список всемирного наследия как уникальный пример функционально-традиционной архитектуры впечатляющих размеров, отражающей различные стадии экономической и социальной истории общества. Они также являются примером человеческих поселений, где главными ценностями являлись, с одной стороны, общинный образ жизни и самозащита, а с другой - гармоничное взаимодействие с окружающей средой.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Tulou de Fujian

El sitio comprende 46 casas de tierra construidas entre los siglos XII y XX a lo largo de un eje de 120 km, en las tierras del interior del estrecho de Taiwán, al sudoeste de la provincia de Fujian. Edificadas en medio de arrozales y plantaciones de tabaco y té, estas casas de tierra de varias plantas, llamadas tulou, podían albergar hasta 800 personas. Su construcción, con fines defensivos, se hizo con arreglo a un trazado circular o cuadrado en torno a un patio central con una sola entrada y con muy pocos vanos en la fachada exterior. Servían de vivienda a la totalidad de los miembros de un mismo y constituían pueblos enteros, que solían llamarse “pequeños reinos familiares” o “pequeñas ciudades prósperas”. Son característicos sus altos muros de adobe rematados por tejados de grandes aleros. Las construcciones más elaboradas datan de los siglos XVII y XVIII. Las edificaciones se repartían verticalmente entre varias familias, que disponían cada una de dos o tres habitaciones por planta. El interior de cada tulou, a diferencia de su austera fachada, estaba diseñado para hacer confortable la vida de sus habitantes y con frecuencia poseía ricas ornamentaciones. Estos edificios se inscriben en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial por la excepcionalidad de sus dimensiones, sus técnicas tradicionales de construcción y sus funciones. Constituyen un ejemplo único de asentamientos humanos basados en una vida comunitaria y una organización defensiva, en armonía con el medio ambiente circundante.

source: UNESCO/ERI

福建の土楼

source: NFUAJ

Fujian Tulou

Fujian Tulou zijn 46 gebouwen opgericht tussen de 15e en 20e eeuw, verdeeld over een gebied van 120 kilometer in het zuidwesten van de provincie Fujian, tegenover de Straat van Taiwan. De Tulou zijn aarden huizen gelegen tussen rijst-, thee- en tabakvelden. Ze zijn enkele verdiepingen hoog en gebouwd rondom een rond of vierkant binnenplein, waar 800 mensen konden wonen. Ze dienden als verdedigingsbouwwerken en hadden slechts één ingang en alleen buitenramen boven de eerste verdieping. De huizen werden bewoond door een hele clan en functioneerden zo als dorpseenheden. Hierdoor stonden ze bekend als ‘een klein koninkrijk voor de familie’ of ‘bruisende kleine stad’.

Source: unesco.nl

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Fujian Tulou (China), 46 multi-storey earthen houses built between the 12th and 20th centuries over 120 km in south-west of Fujian province. They house up to 800 people each. Built for defence purposes, they were called a © UNESCO
Outstanding Universal Value

The Fujian Tulou are the most representative and best preserved examples of the tulou of the mountainous regions of south-eastern China. The large, technically sophisticated and dramatic earthen defensive buildings, built between the 13th and 20th centuries, in their highly sensitive setting in fertile mountain valleys, are an extraordinary reflection of a communal response to settlement which has persisted over time. The tulou, and their extensive associated documentary archives, reflect the emergence, innovation, and development of an outstanding art of earthen building over seven centuries. The elaborate compartmentalised interiors, some with highly decorated surfaces, met both their communities’ physical and spiritual needs and reflect in an extraordinary way the development of a sophisticated society in a remote and potentially hostile environment. The relationship of the massive buildings to their landscape embodies both Feng Shui principles and ideas of landscape beauty and harmony.

Criterion (iii): The tulou bear an exceptional testimony to a long-standing cultural tradition of defensive buildings for communal living that reflect sophisticated building traditions and ideas of harmony and collaboration, well documented over time.

Criterion (iv): The tulou are exceptional in terms of size, building traditions and function, and reflect society’s response to various stages in economic and social history within the wider region.

Criterion (v): The tulou as a whole and the nominated Fujian tulou in particular, in terms of their form are a unique reflection of communal living and defensive needs, and in terms of their harmonious relationship with their environment, an outstanding example of human settlement.

The authenticity of the tulou is related to sustaining the tulou themselves and their building traditions as well as the structures and processes associated with their farmed and forested landscape setting. The integrity of the tulou is related to their intactness as buildings but also to the intactness of the surrounding farmed and forested landscape – into which they were so carefully sited in accordance with Feng Shui principles.

The legal protection of the nominated areas and their buffer zones are adequate. The overall management system for the property is adequate, involving both government administrative bodies and local communities, although plans for the sustainability of the landscape that respect local farming and forestry traditions need to be better developed.

Historical Description

Archaeological research has revealed that there have been communal houses built of rammed earth in China, Central Asia, and East Asia since the Neolithic period (6,000 years ago). Over a long period social, economic, and cultural developments in south-eastern China were closely associated with the mass immigration of northern people. During the Western Jin Dynasty (307-12 CE), because of continual warfare and serious drought, people from central China began to migrate southward, many of them reaching Fujian, bringing with them the advanced cultures of central China, and Fujian began to thrive. In the late Tang dynasty (7th-8th century), people in central China once again moved southward on a large scale to escape the wars, many going to Quanzhou and Fuzhou along the coast of Fujian and Jianzhou in the north. Those who settled in south-eastern Fujian (Zhangzhou and Quangzhou) became the Fulao people, who spoke the Minnan (south Fujian) dialect during the course of merging with local people. Some of their descendants went even further, to overseas countries. During the later years of the Northern Song Dynasty and the Southern Song dynasty in particular (1127-1279), the conquest of northern China by Jin ethnic people forced many people in central China once again to move southward, bringing with them the language and culture of central China to form the Hakka group, now mainly distributed in Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, and Hainan Provinces and Taiwan, together with millions of overseas Chinese worldwide.

The Fujian tulou seem first to have appeared in the Song and Yuan Dynasties (11th-13th centuries) and developed from the 14th and 16th centuries (Early and Middle Ming Dynasty), reaching their peak between the 17th century and the first half of the 20th century (the Late Ming and Qing Dynasties and the Republic of China period).

The first tulou buildings were comparatively small, rectangular or square, plainly decorated, and without stone foundations. From the end of the 14th century to the early 17th century (Ming Dynasty), in response to improved agricultural development in Fujian, and frequent bandit raids (attracted by the prosperity of the area) much larger tulou were constructed. As a result of an increase in the processing of tobacco and tea between the mid 17th and the first half of the 20th centuries, tulou were further developed that reflected in their size and decoration the wealth created from industry.

Many of the tulou are extremely well documented and the names of founders of the clans and the builders of the tulou are known from as early as the 13th century and in many areas the same family persisted until the 20th century.

The tulou, although providing communal housing and reinforcing the structure of clans, were until the 20th century, mostly built and owned by one powerful individual. In the early buildings these would be people who derived their wealth from land and agriculture, (such as rearing ducks or cattle) for the later buildings trade and industry, in the 17th century shipping and tea, and later processing tobacco. For instance, the building of the early tulou in the Hongkeng cluster is attributed to Lin Yongsong, descendent of two brothers who had moved into the area around 1290, while Zhencheng Lou constructed in 1912 was built by Lin's 21st generation descendents, two brothers who had made large sums from the Sunrise cigarette cutter factory, and spent 80,000 silver dollars on building the tulou.

Tulou built in the 20th century were often funded by overseas Chinese such as one of the tulou in Gaobei cluster where local clansmen constructed the building jointly with money provided by their overseas relative, after whom the building was named.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation