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Kaiping Diaolou and Villages

Kaiping Diaolou and Villages

Kaiping Diaolou and Villages feature the Diaolou, multi-storeyed defensive village houses in Kaiping, which display a complex and flamboyant fusion of Chinese and Western structural and decorative forms. They reflect the significant role of émigré Kaiping people in the development of several countries in South Asia, Australasia and North America, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. There are four groups of Diaolou and twenty of the most symbolic ones are inscribed on the List. These buildings take three forms: communal towers built by several families and used as temporary refuge, residential towers built by individual rich families and used as fortified residences, and watch towers. Built of stone, pise , brick or concrete, these buildings represent a complex and confident fusion between Chinese and Western architectural styles. Retaining a harmonious relationship with the surrounding landscape, the Diaolou testify to the final flowering of local building traditions that started in the Ming period in response to local banditry.

Diaolou et villages de Kaiping

Les diaolou, maisons fortifiées de village de Kaiping, bâties sur plusieurs étages, témoignent d’une fusion complexe et flamboyante des formes structurelles et décoratives chinoises et occidentales. Elles sont le reflet du rôle significatif que jouèrent les émigrés de Kaiping dans le développement de plusieurs pays en Asie du Sud, en Australasie et en Amérique du Nord à la fin du XIXe siècle et au début du XXe siècle. Il y a quatre groupes de diaolou dont une vingtaine de bâtiments ont été inscrits sur la Liste. Il existe trois types de bâtiments : les tours communautaires construites par plusieurs familles et utilisées comme refuges temporaires, les tours résidentielles construites par de riches familles à des fins résidentielles et défensives, et les tours de guet. Fabriqués en pierre, en pisé, en brique ou en béton, ces édifices symbolisent la fusion complexe et réussie des styles architecturaux chinois et occidentaux. Harmonieusement intégrés dans le paysage environnant, les diaolou représentent l’épanouissement de traditions locales – nées sous la dynastie des Ming – en matière de construction visant à se défendre contre les bandits.

كايبينغ دياولو والقرى

شيِّدت معظم منازل القرى الدفاعية المؤلفة من عدة طبقات في كايبينغ (مقاطعة غوانغدونغ)، أو ما يُعرف بـ"دياولو"، في عشرينات وثلاثينات القرن الماضي. وهي تضم بنى وأشكالاً هندسية معقدة ومتوهجة في آن، ومستوحاة من الصين والغرب معاً. تعكس هذه المنازل الدور البارز الذي لعبه المهاجرون من جماعة كايبينغ في تطور عدد من البلدان في جنوب آسيا وأستراليا وأميركا الشمالية في أواخر القرن التاسع عشر ومطلع القرن العشرين، والتعلق الشديد بين جماعة كايبينغ ومنازلها الأصلية ما وراء البحار. الملكية المدرجة كناية عن أربع مجموعات من الـ"دياولو" (حوالي 800 1 منزل في المحيط القروي)، وهي تعكس مرحلة الذروة لخمسة قرون من البناء لهذه المنازل الأبراج والصلات التي ما زالت وثيقة حتى الآن بين جماعة كايبينغ والشتات الصيني. تتخذ هذه المباني ثلاثة أشكال: الأبراج المجتمعية التي بنتها عائلات عديدة واستخدمت كملاجئ مؤقتة، وبقي منها 473 مبنى؛ الأبراج السكنية التي بنتها عائلات ثرية واستخدمت كأمكنة إقامة محصَّنة، وبقي منها 149 1 مبنى؛ أبراج المراقبة، وهي المجموعة الأخيرة وتشمل 221 مبنى. شيِّدت هذه المباني من الحجر والتربة المضغوطة والآجر والإسمنت، وهي تجمع ما بين النماذج الهندسية الصينية والغربية. كما يسود الانسجام العلاقة القائمة مع المشاهد الطبيعية والزراعية المحيطة بها. وتشهد منازل الـ"دياولو" على ازدهار تقاليد البناء المحلية التي بدأت في حقبة مينغ رداً على أعمال العنف والسلب واللصوصية المحلية.

أبراج دياولو  المحصنة رسالة اليونسكو (2007)

source: UNESCO/ERI

开平碉楼与村落

开平碉楼与村落以广东省开平市用于防卫的多层塔楼式乡村民居——雕镂而著称,展现了中西建筑和装饰形式复杂而灿烂的融合,表现了19世纪末及20世纪初开平侨民在几个南亚国家、澳洲以及北美国家发展进程中的重要作用,以及海外开平人与其故里的密切联系。此次收录的遗产包括四组共计20座碉楼,是村落群中近1800座塔楼的代表,代表了近五个世纪塔楼建筑的颠峰,也展现了散居国外的华侨与故土之间仍然紧密的联系。这些建筑分为三种形式:由若干户人家共同兴建的众楼,为临时避难之用,现存473座;由富有人家独自建造的居楼,同时具有防卫和居住的功能,现存1149座;以及出现时间最晚的更楼,为联防预警之用,现存221座。也可分为石楼、土楼、青砖楼、钢筋水泥楼,反映了中西方建筑风格复杂而完美的融合。碉楼与周围的乡村景观和谐共生,见证了明代以来以防匪为目的的当地建筑传统的最后繁荣。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Диаолоу и деревни Кайпинга

Диаолоу и деревни Кайпинга (Китай) включают многоэтажные деревенские жилые дома, играющие также роль оборонительных сооружений. Они сочетают структурные и декоративные формы, типичные как для Китая, так и для Западной Европы; 20 из 1,800 диаолоу (домов - оборонительных башен), расположенных на территории четырех комплексов, были внесены в Список в категории культурного наследия. Дома-башни делятся на три типа: сохранились 473 строения общего пользования, которые строились на несколько семей в качестве временных укрытий; 1,149 постоянных жилищ укрепленного типа, строившихся отдельно для богатых семей; 221 строение в форме наблюдательных башен – наиболее поздний тип сооружения. Их строение отражает сложное, но органичное слияние двух типов архитектуры – китайского и западно-европейского. Гармонично вписывающиеся в окружающий их сельский пейзаж, диаолоу свидетельствуют о наивысшем расцвете местного строительного искусства, зародившегося в эпоху династии Мин в ответ на нападения разбойников.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Diaolou y aldeas de Kaiping

Las ”diaolou“ son casas fortificadas de varios pisos construidas en las aldeas de la región de Kaiping. Constituyen un ejemplo de fusión compleja y brillante de las formas estructurales y decorativas de China con las de Occidente. Son un exponente del importante papel desempeñado por los emigrados de Kaiping en el desarrollo de varios paí­ses del Asia Meridional, Australasia y América del Norte a finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Hay cuatro conjuntos de ”diaolou“ y en la Lista del Patrimonio Mundial se han inscrito las veinte mí¡s representativas. Los edificios son de tres clases: torres comunales, construidas conjuntamente por varias familias y utilizadas como refugios temporales; torres residenciales, construidas por familias pudientes y utilizadas como viviendas fortificadas; y torres vigí­as. Construidas con piedra, adobe, ladrillo u hormigón, estas construcciones son fruto de una fusión compleja del estilo arquitectónico chino con el occidental. Las ”diaolou“, que se armonizan perfectamente con el paisaje circundante, son un testimonio del floreciente periodo final de una tradición arquitectónica local surgida en la época de los Ming como reacción al bandolerismo reinante en la región.

source: UNESCO/ERI

開平の望楼群と村落

source: NFUAJ

Kaiping Diaolou en dorpen

Kaiping Diaolou en dorpen (provincie Guangdong) bestaan uit diaolou; verdedigingstorens van meerdere verdiepingen met in hun ontwerp en architectuur een combinatie van Chinese en westerse invloeden. Tegen het einde van de 19e eeuw emigreerden vele arme Kaiping Chinezen naar andere landen in Zuid-Azië, Australië en Noord-Amerika. Deze overzeese Chinezen boden financiële steun aan hun achtergebleven families. Door de nieuwe rijkdom werd het gebied het middelpunt van aanvallen van bandieten. Ter verdediging werden er speciale verstevigde torens gebouwd met verschillende functies. De diaolou dienden als toevluchtsoord, woonverblijf of als uitkijktoren, en werden gebouwd van steen, pisé, baksteen of cement.

Source: unesco.nl

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Bird's View of Jinjiangli Village © Tan Weiqiang
Outstanding Universal Value

The Diaolou and their surrounding villages demonstrate Outstanding Universal Value for their complex and confident fusion between Chinese and western architectural styles, for their final flowering of local tower building traditions, for their completeness and unaltered state resulting from their short life span as fortified dwellings and their comparative abandonment and for harmonious relationship with their agricultural landscape.

Criterion (ii): The Diaolou represent in dramatic physical terms an important interchange of human values - architectural styles brought back from North America by returning Chinese and fused with local rural traditions - within a particular cultural area of the world.

Criterion (iii): The building of defensive towers was a local tradition in the Kaiping area since Ming times in response to local banditry. The nominated Diaolou represent the final flourishing of this tradition, in which the conspicuous wealth of the retuning Chinese contributed to the spread of banditry and their towers were an extreme response.

Criterion (iv): The main towers, with their settings and through their flamboyant display of wealth, are a type of building that reflects the significant role played by émigré Kaiping people in the development of several countries in South Asia, Australasia, and North America, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and the continuing links between the Kaiping community and Chinese communities in these parts of the world.

The wholeness and intactness of the nominated properties are evident insofar as all the elements that express their values are still in place; the size of each of the properties is adequate as the features and processes that convey the significance are fully represented in the towers and their surrounding villages of small houses and farmland. The nominated Diaolou, their surrounding village houses, and the agricultural landscape are all authentic, apart from certain houses in Sanmenli Village.

Since 2001, all the Diaolou are protected as national monuments under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Relics, 1982 and also covered by Provincial and Municipal Regulations. A buffer zone has been established. The overall state of conservation of the Diaolou is good; the state of conservation of village houses and the agricultural landscape is reasonable. No extensive conservation works have been undertaken. Nevertheless minor repair works, are carried out where necessary, and inappropriate building interventions have been reversed. A Management Plan for the nominated property has been drawn up by Beijing University under the auspices of the People's Government of Kaiping City. It has been implemented since 2005.

Historical Description

In the Han period (255BC-220AD) Han people from the Central Plains of China began to move into the area and intermingled with the Yue people, who cultivated rice and fished. Settlements based on clan groupings emerged laid out according to Feng Shui principles and with houses built of mud bricks or fired bricks and timber.

From the 16th century, in response to increasing raids by bandits from the north coming into the area along the rivers, and to frequent heavy floods, villagers begun to construct fortified towers, known as Diaolou. An example is Yinglong Lou in Sanmenli Village. Following the creation of the Kaiping County in 1649, the security of the area greatly improved and few Diaolou were constructed in the Qing Dynasty: Kaiping means ‘Beginning of Peace'.

From the mid 16th century, many villagers began to trade from the nearby coast, sailing in wooden junks to south-east Asia. In 1839 a poor farmer left his village and travelled to America. This was the start of a large migration of people drawn on the one hand by work on gold-fields and railroads, and prompted on the other by an increasingly difficult situation at home, brought about by warfare against Hakka migrants from the north and an increase in population which had led to food shortages. Many thousands of Kaiping villagers left the area, travelling to Macao and Hong Kong and then on to USA, Canada or Australia. In North America the immigrants had to take jobs involving hard manual labour. Nevertheless by the end of the 19th century the Chinese community had begun to amass savings, and after the first World War, with rapid economic expansion in many countries, the fortunes of the overseas Chinese steadily improved. What they did not believe they had achieved however, was social recognition for their input into the expansion of the countries they had chosen to live in. Their dreams came to be associated with contributing to the wellbeing of their ancestral villages or returning to live there, and many did just that building conspicuous tower houses.

The influx of wealthy people attracted the attention of the bandits from the north who raided, robbed and kidnapped. Between 1912 and 1930, 71 incidents of banditry were recorded. The new houses needed to be built as defensive towers. The overseas Chinese also contributed to the construction of communal towers and watchtowers in most of the villages. Of the 1833 Diaolou in Kaiping, 1648 were built between 1900 and 1931, just under 90% of the total. In the same period most of the villages were built or rebuilt. In the short space of 30 years the rural landscape of Kaiping was completely transformed with funds from overseas Chinese.

The Depression of the 1930s, and the war against Japan and the Pacific war of the 1940s brought development to a halt. Between 1943 and 1947 immigration control in the USA and Canada was abolished with the result that many Chinese moved back to North America. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, banditry was halted and flood mitigation measures were introduced: the role of the Diaolou disappeared. In the 1980s following the re-opening of China, many villagers moved away. Now many Diaolou are empty, cared for by caretakers, but still regarded by overseas Chinese as their spiritual home to which they return on family occasions or remit money for prayers to be said to their ancestors. Some still contain all their original furniture and fittings.

The surrounding villages and farmland are still part of an active rural economy, The village houses, rice fields, bamboo groves and surrounding grazed hills reflecting rural landscape patterns and practices that may have persisted for over a millennia.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation