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Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent

Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent

The Novodevichy Convent, in south-western Moscow, built in the 16th and 17th centuries in the so-called Moscow Baroque style, was part of a chain of monastic ensembles that were integrated into the defence system of the city. The convent was directly associated with the political, cultural and religious history of Russia, and closely linked to the Moscow Kremlin. It was used by women of the Tsar’s family and the aristocracy. Members of the Tsar’s family and entourage were also buried in its cemetery. The convent provides an example of the highest accomplishments of Russian architecture with rich interiors and an important collection of paintings and artefacts.

Ensemble du couvent Novodievitchi

Le couvent Novodievitchi, au sud-ouest de Moscou, fut édifié durant le XVIe et le XVIIe siècle dans le style baroque moscovite. Il faisait partie d’un ensemble monastique s’inscrivant dans le système de défense de la ville. Le couvent a été directement associé à l’histoire politique, culturelle et religieuse de la Russie, et plus étroitement encore au Kremlin de Moscou. Il était fréquenté par des femmes de la famille du tsar et de l’aristocratie. Des membres de la famille et de l’entourage du tsar reposent dans son cimetière. Le couvent offre un des exemples les plus brillants de l’architecture russe, avec ses intérieurs richement ornés et une vaste collection de peintures et d’objets précieux.

تجمّع دير نوفوديفيتشي

يقع دير نوفوديفيتشي جنوب غرب موسكو ولقد جرى تشييده بين القرنين السادس والسابع عشر على نسق غريب خاصٍ بموسكو. وهو كان جزءاً من أديرة تندرج ضمن نظام الدفاع عن المدينة. ارتبط الدير مباشرةً بتاريخ روسيا السياسي والثقافي والديني واتصل بالكرملين وموسكو. وكانت ترتاده النساء من أسرة القيصر والأرستقراطية. ويُشكّل الدير بأجزائه الداخليّة الغنيّة بالزينة وبمجموعة لوحاته وأغراضه الثمينة أمثلةً ساطعةً عن الهندسة الروسيّة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

新圣女修道院

新圣女修道院坐落于莫斯科的西南面,建于16世纪至17世纪,是莫斯科市纳入防御体系的一系列修道院建筑的一部分。该修道院与俄罗斯的政治、文化和宗教历史直接相关,同莫斯科的克里姆林宫紧密相连,供沙皇家族及贵族的妇女使用。沙皇家族的成员和后代也被埋在修道院的墓场。该女修道院的内部装饰华丽,收集了重要的绘画艺术品,是俄罗斯最高建筑成就的典范。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Ансамбль Новодевичьего монастыря (Москва)

Новодевичий монастырь, расположенный на юго-западе Москвы, создавался на протяжении XVI-XVII столетий и являлся одним из звеньев в цепочке монастырских ансамблей, объединенных в оборонную систему города. Монастырь был тесно связан с политической, культурной и религиозной жизнью России, а также с Московским Кремлем. Здесь были пострижены в монахини и погребены представительницы царской фамилии, знатных боярских и дворянских родов. Ансамбль Новодевичьего монастыря является одним из шедевров русского зодчества (стиль «московское барокко»), а его интерьеры, где хранятся ценные коллекции живописи и произведений декоративно-прикладного искусства, отличаются богатым внутренним убранством.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Conjunto conventual de Novodevichy

Edificado en los siglos XVI y XVII, en estilo barroco moscovita, el Convento de Novodevichy, situado al suroeste de Moscú, fue uno de los tantos eslabones de la cadena de monasterios que formaban parte del sistema defensivo de la ciudad. Este convento estuvo directamente vinculado a la historia política, cultural y religiosa de Rusia, y mantuvo sobre todo lazos muy estrechos con el Kremlin de Moscú, ya que fue frecuentado por mujeres de la familia del zar y de la aristocracia. Algunos miembros y allegados de la familia del zar fueron enterrados en su cementerio. El convento es uno de los más bellos ejemplos de las realizaciones de la arquitectura rusa y en sus aposentos ricamente decorados alberga una importante colección de pinturas y obras de arte.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ノヴォデヴィチ女子修道院群

source: NFUAJ

Kloostercomplex Novodevichy

Het Novodevichy klooster ligt in het zuidwesten van Moskou. Het is gebouwd in de 16e en 17e eeuw in de zogenoemde barokstijl van Moskou en maakte deel uit van een keten van kloostercomplexen. Het klooster werd direct in verband gebracht met de politieke, culturele en religieuze geschiedenis van Rusland en was nauw verbonden met het Kremlin in Moskou. Het complex werd gebruikt door vrouwen van de familie van de tsaar en de adel en op de begraafplaats van het klooster zijn familieleden en verwanten van de tsaar begraven. Het Novodevichy klooster toont hoogstaande Russische architectuur, met overdadige interieurs en belangrijke collecties schilderijen en kunstvoorwerpen.

Source: unesco.nl

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Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent © OUR PLACE
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (i): The Novodevichy Convent is the most outstanding example of the so-called ‘Moscow Baroque’, which became a fashionable style in the region of Moscow. Apart form its fine architecture and decorative details, the site is characterised by its town-planning values.

Criterion (iv): The Novodevichy Convent is an outstanding example of an exceptionally well preserved monastic complex, representing particularly the ‘Moscow baroque’ style in the architecture of the late 17th century.

Criterion (vi): The Novodevichy Convent ensemble integrates the political and cultural nature of the existing World Heritage site of Moscow Kremlin. It is itself closely related to Russian Orthodoxy, as well as with the Russian history especially in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Long Description

The Novodevichy Convent is an outstanding example of an exceptionally well-preserved monastic complex, representing the Moscow Baroque style in the architecture of the late 17th century Apart from its fine architecture and decorative details, the site is characterized by its high town-planning values.The ensemble integrates the political and cultural nature of the existing World Heritage site of Moscow Kremlin. It is itself closely related to Russian Orthodoxy, as well as with Russian history, especially in the 16th and 17th centuries.

The convent is situated in the south-western part of the historic town of Moscow, close to the Moscow River. The Convent territory is enclosed within walls and surrounded by a park, which forms the buffer zone. The park is limited by the urban fabric of the city on the north and east sides. On the west side, it is limited by the Moscow River, and on the south side there is an urban freeway. The north-west shore of the lake offers picturesque panoramas that are important for the perception of the ensemble.

The convent was founded by Grand Duke Vasily III in the 1520s to mark the liberation of Smolensk and its return to the Russian State in 1514. It was dedicated to the Icon of the Mother God of Smolensk 'Hodigitria', the highest shrine of Russian orthodoxy. The Convent is surrounded by a high masonry wall with 12 towers. The entrances are from the north (town side) and the south. The Smolensky Cathedral, oriented west-east, is situated in the centre of the axes between the two entrance gates. The layout of the convent territory is an irregular rectangle stretching from the west to east. The ensemble of the convent is surrounded by a fortress wall with 12 towers. Originating from the 16th century, the dominating aspect of the ensemble was given by the 'Moscow Baroque' style in the 17th century. The layout of the convent can be referred to two axes. The east-west axis is formed by the Church of the Assumption and the Bell Tower. The north-south axis is defined by the two entrance gates. The North Gate is linked with the Church of Transfiguration, and the South Gate with the Church of the Holy Virgin. The Refectory and the Church of St Amvrosi are close to the South Gate. The Bell Tower (1683-90) is 72 m high in five tiers. It is built from red brick in Moscow Baroque style, using white-stone decorative elements. The convent has a number of residential and service buildings, many along the walls.

The unusual disposition of the belfry on the far end of the east-west axis, near the eastern boundary, stresses its organic link with the surrounding streets, and especially to the Moscow Kremlin. This aspect is stressed in the visual links and spatial orientation of its urban layout. Smolensky Cathedral, the main focal point of the convent, is situated at the crossing of the two axes of the site, and is dedicated to the Mother of God of Smolensk (1524-25, paintings of 16th century and iconostas of 17th century).

This was the first stone building of the ensemble, possibly designed by an Italian architect, and built from brick masonry with stone details. The building has three aisles ending in three apses; it is surrounded by two-tier galleries and crowned by five cupolas. The outer walls are plastered white and articulated vertically into sections each of which ends up with a semicircle on the roof line. The interior is covered by a system of cross-vaulting and domes on light drums. The interior walls, pillars and vaults are covered with mural paintings on a tempera base. The main theme of the paintings is 'Akaphist's text praising the Virgin', made in a style tending towards classical ancient Russian style. The wooden-framed iconostasis, decorated in gold-coated carvings, typical of Moscow Baroque, has icons of the 16th and 17th centuries.

The Church of St Amvrosiy Mediolanskiy with the Old Refectory and the Irininskiye chambers (late 16th to 17th centuries) comprise three main volumes made in brick. This complex, in one and two storeys, is fairly simple in its general architectural expression. The church facade has typical decorative details of the 17th century. The Church of the Assumption of the Virgin and Refectory (1685-87) is built from brick in Moscow Baroque style. It is mainly in one storey with a low roof line, except for a tower part which is crowned with a small onion-dome cupola. It has three entrance porches projecting from the building. The interior has painted decorations and an iconostasis that dates from the 17th to 20th centuries.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The Novodevichy Convent was founded by Grand Duke Vasily III in the 1520s to mark the liberation of Smolensk and returning it to the Russian State in 1514. The Convent was dedicated to the Icon of the Mother God of Smolensk ‘Hodigitria', the highest shrine of Russian orthodoxy. The Cathedral of the Convent was built in the honour of this Icon. The Convent also became one of the most respected and rich nunneries, joined by women of tsarist and boyar families. It was called Novodevichy (‘The Virgin Hodigitria New Maiden') to differ from the Ascension Convent, Voznesensky Starodevichy (‘Old Maiden'), in the Moscow Kremlin. There were other associations between these two ensembles. Novodevichy was used as an alternative residence for tsarist family. The cathedral of Novodevichy and the cathedrals of the Kremlin were the two sites used as burial places for the ruling dynasty in the 16th and 17th centuries. The location of the convent at the crossing of the river on the access road to Moscow contributed to give Novodevichy an important defence function as well. This historical road, furthermore, became an important element in the development of planning of the city. Such symbolic and physical relationship with Kremlin also gave an impact to the spatial arrangement of Novodevichy itself, eg in the position of the Bell Tower.

The end of the 16th century was active for the Convent related with the coronation of Boris Godunov, and his sister Tsarina Irina taking monastic votes. This is the period for the construction of the surrounding stone walls with towers. Toward the end of the 17th century, there was another period, which resulted in the construction of new buildings. During this period, Princess Sofia Alekseevna assisted her brother Fedor to govern the country. After his death she continued to govern for seven more years. During this time, she kept her residence in Novodevichy. The walls and towers were now rebuilt, partly using the old masonry, and decorated with elaborate crowns in red brick, reflecting the ‘Moscow baroque' style. The earlier buildings were also adapted to the same style.

The Necropolis of the Convent was initiated in the 16th century. The cathedral served as burial place for women of the tsarist and ruling families. The cemetery around the cathedral was used for nobility and honourable citizens. In 1898-1904, a new cemetery was established outside the south wall, a burial place of the most eminent Russian intellectuals, and political and military figures.

After the October Revolution, in 1922, the Convent was closed, and it became the ‘Museum of emancipation of woman'. It was later reorganised as the historical and art museum of ‘The Novodevichy Convent'. At present this is affiliated to the State Historical Museum of Kremlin. The collections of Novodevichy contain a large number of precious objects and paintings, as well as an important library, related to the life of the tsarist dynasties and the history of the country, thus becoming a complement to the Kremlin. Since 1980 Novodevich Convent is a residence of a Metropolitan, and in 1994 a nunnery has again been introduced there.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation