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Tugendhat Villa in Brno

Tugendhat Villa in Brno

The Tugendhat Villa in Brno, designed by the architect Mies van der Rohe, is an outstanding example of the international style in the modern movement in architecture as it developed in Europe in the 1920s. Its particular value lies in the application of innovative spatial and aesthetic concepts that aim to satisfy new lifestyle needs by taking advantage of the opportunities afforded by modern industrial production.

Villa Tugendhat à Brno

La villa Tugendhat à Brno, conçue par l'architecte Mies van der Rohe, est un exemple remarquable du style international dans le mouvement moderne en architecture tel qu'il s'est développé en Europe au cours des années 20. Sa valeur particulière réside dans la mise en œuvre de concepts spatiaux et esthétiques novateurs, visant a satisfaire les nouveaux besoins liés au mode de vie, tout en tirant parti des moyens offerts par la production industrielle moderne.

فيلا توغينهات في برنو

تعتبر فيلا توغينهات في برنو التي صممها المهندس المعماري ميس فان در روهه نموذجاً فريداً من الطراز الدولي الذي عرفه التيار الحديث في الهندسة على مرّ تطوره في اوروبا خلال العشرينات. وتكمن قيمة الفيلا في المفاهيم الامتدادية والتجميلية الابتكارية الرامية الى تلبية الحاجات الجديدة المرتبطة بنمط الحياة عبر الاستفادة من الأساليب التي يوفرها الانتاج الصناعي الحديث.

source: UNESCO/ERI

布尔诺的图根哈特别墅

布尔诺的图根德哈特别墅是建筑师密斯·范·德·罗厄(Mies van der Rohe)设计的,是20世纪20年代欧洲兴起的建筑近代运动国际风格的杰出典范,其独特的价值体现在创新空间和美学理念的应用上,这些理念旨在利用现代工业生产带来的机会,以满足新生活方式的需要。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Вилла Тугендгат в городе Брно

Вилла Тугендгат в Брно, спроектированная архитектором Мис ван дер Роэ, является ярчайшим примером международного стиля в архитектуре «Современного движения», получившей распространение в Европе в 1920-е гг. Ее особая ценность состоит в применении новаторских пространственных и эстетических концепций, призванных отвечать потребностям нового стиля жизни, с использованием возможностей современного индустриального производства.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Villa Tugendhat en Brno

Construida en la ciudad Brno, esta villa fue diseñada por el arquitecto Mies Van der Rohe. Es un ejemplo notable del estilo internacional del movimiento arquitectónico moderno en la Europa del decenio de 1920. Su valor particular estriba en la aplicación de principios espaciales y estéticos innovadores, encaminados a satisfacer las necesidades creadas por el estilo de vida contemporáneo mediante la utilización de las posibilidades ofrecidas por la producción industrial moderna.

source: UNESCO/ERI

ブルノのツゲンドハット邸

source: NFUAJ

Tugendhat villa in Brno

De Tugendhat villa is ontworpen door de Duitse architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969). De villa is bijzonder vanwege de toepassing van innovatieve ruimtelijke en esthetische concepten, gericht op het voldoen aan nieuwe levensstijlbehoeften, waarbij gebruik gemaakt is van moderne industriële productiemogelijkheden. Het gebouw belichaamt het werk van Van der Rohe, die een belangrijke rol speelde in de wereldwijde verspreiding van de Moderne Beweging, een architectuurstijl die een revolutie ontketende in Europa vanaf 1920. De villa werd eind 1930 afgerond. De architect leidde het project tot in de kleinste details, waaronder het ontwerpen van het meubilair; ontwerpen die wereldberoemd zijn geworden.

Source: unesco.nl

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Main living space, Tugendhat Villa in Brno © Institute for the Care of Historical Monuments
Justification for Inscription

Criterion (i): The Tugendhat Villa is a masterpiece of the Modern Movement in architecture.

Criterion (ii): The German architect Mies van der Rohe applied the radical new concepts of the Modern Movement triumphantly to the Tugendhat Villa to the design of residential buildings.

Criterion (iv): Architecture was revolutionized by the Modern Movement in the 1920s and the work of Mies van der Rohe, epitomized by the Tugendhat Villa, played a major role in its worldwide diffusion and acceptance.

Long Description

The Tugendhat Villa is a masterpiece of the Modern Movement in architecture. The German architect Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969) applied the radical new concepts of the Modern Movement triumphantly in the Tugendhat Villa to the design of residential buildings.

The villa was designed by van der Rohe for Grete Weiss and her husband Fritz Tugendhat, members of wealthy industrial families in the city of Brno in former Czechoslovakia. The architect accepted the commission in 1927 and the villa was completed by the end of 1930. The architect took charge of the project down to the smallest detail, also designing all the furniture of the house, designs that have become world-renowned.

Mies van der Rohe was one of the principal architects in the development of the Modern Movement in architecture, which characterized design and construction in the 1920s and 1930s in Europe and North America. Originally from Aachen and then working in Berlin, he was influenced by the work of Frank Lloyd Wright. During the German occupation, the Tugendhat family left Czechoslovakia and the Villa was taken over by the German State in 1939. It lost most of its original furniture, and was subject to some alterations and damage. After the war, the building was taken over by the State of Czechoslovakia. The Tugendhat Villa Fund was established in 1993, and a scientific restoration of the building took place.

The Tugendhat Villa is a detached house in a residential area of the city of Brno. The entrance to the house is from the street on the north side of the lot, which slopes down towards the south, forming a small garden. The building has three floors, one facing the street and three developing down towards the garden. The house has a flat roof, and each floor has a different plan. The uppermost floor is entered directly from street level and includes a terrace that traverses the house and forms a balcony on the garden side. From here one reaches a small entrance hall, family bedrooms and services; the master bedroom and dressing room are on the garden side. The garage and caretaker's lodging are at the west end of the house. From the hallway and from the balcony there are stairways leading down to the main floor, which has three parts. The first part is the main living area with a winter garden, reception room, music corner, study and library, sitting areas, dining room and services.

The second part has kitchen facilities, and the third part consists of the servants' area. The living area has large windows on two sides and is directly joined to the terrace, which is partly open, partly covered, and has a wide stairway leading down to garden level. The ground level has utility rooms and is used for technical purposes. The main structure of the house is made from reinforced concrete with steel frames. A structure of polished steel pillars supports the entire house. A steel skeleton also carries ceramic ceiling panels.

The exterior of the house is rendered and painted white. Light-coloured travertine tiles are used in the staircases leading down to the garden and in the living hall there is ivory-coloured linoleum. The entrance is panelled with dark palisander wood. The back wall of the living area is made from beautiful onyx, the same division as in the glass wall opening towards the garden. The original furniture and some of the pieces were made specifically for this house, such as the so-called Tugendhat chair, in chromium-plated flat steel elements and upholstered in stitched leather. The living area was furnished in such a way that each piece had its specific place. The mechanical equipment designed and built for the house was also exceptional, including special structural solutions for the use of steel pillars, for processing the onyx wall that was brought from the African Atlas Mountains, and for the electrically operated large steel-frame windows. The house had central heating and an air-conditioning system with a regulated fine-spray humidifying chamber.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

The Tugendhat Villa was designed by the German architect, Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969), for Grete Weiss and her husband Fritz Tugendhat, members of wealthy industrial families in the city of Brno in former Czechoslovakia. The architect accepted the commission in 1927, and the design process lasted about two years, parallel with designing the German Pavilion (1928-29) at the International Fair in Barcelona, commissioned by the German Government. The construction of the Tugendhat Villa was completed by the end of 1930. The architect took charge of the project down to the smallest detail, also designing all the furniture of the house, designs that have become world-renowned.

Mies van der Rohe was one of the principal architects in the development of the Modern Movement in Architecture, which characterized design and construction in the 1920s and 1930s in Europe and North America. Originally from Aachen and then working in Berlin, he was influenced by the work and teachings of Behrens and Berlage, by the principles of the De Stijl movement, as well as by Frank Lloyd Wright. His early interests were in developing design concepts for high-rise buildings in reinforced concrete and glass in the early 1920s: he designed the Weissenhof apartments in Stuttgart in 1927, another key work in the Modern Movement. From 1926 Mies van der Rohe was a member of the Deutscher Werkbund, and from 1930 to 1933 he was Director of the Bauhaus in Dessau. He later moved to Chicago in the USA, teaching at the Illinois Institute of Technology and designing large office buildings, his later trademark. His furniture designs have become classics in the 20th century.

During the German occupation, the Tugendhat family left Czechoslovakia and the Villa was taken over by the German State in 1939. It lost most of its original furniture, and was subject to some alterations and damage - eg that caused by a bomb explosion in the neighbourhood in 1944. After the war, the building was taken over by the State of Czechoslovakia; it served a nearby children's hospital and then the national health institute of Brno, becoming the property of the City of Brno. In 1962 the Villa was protected as a national monument. There was increasing interest in restoring it, and the first study to this effect was made in 1971, leading to a restoration campaign in 1981-85, which guaranteed the continuation of the use of the building on a provisional basis. The Tugendhat Villa Fund was established in 1993, followed by the decision of the Friends of the Tugendhat Fund to undertake a scientific restoration of the building. This work took place beginning in 1994 and funds were raised to furnish the building with replicas of the original designs by Mies van der Rohe.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation