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Kinabalu Park

Kinabalu Park

Kinabalu Park, in the State of Sabah on the northern end of the island of Borneo, is dominated by Mount Kinabalu (4,095 m), the highest mountain between the Himalayas and New Guinea. It has a very wide range of habitats, from rich tropical lowland and hill rainforest to tropical mountain forest, sub-alpine forest and scrub on the higher elevations. It has been designated as a Centre of Plant Diversity for Southeast Asia and is exceptionally rich in species with examples of flora from the Himalayas, China, Australia, Malaysia, as well as pan-tropical flora.

Parc du Kinabalu

Ce parc, situé dans l'Etat de Sabah, au nord de l'île de Bornéo, est dominé par le mont Kinabalu (4 095 m), la plus haute montagne entre la chaîne de l'Himalaya et la Nouvelle-Guinée. Il présente un large éventail d'habitats : riches forêts ombrophiles tropicales de plaine et de colline, forêt tropicale de montagne, et, plus haut en altitude, forêts subalpines et buissons sempervirentes. Le Parc du Kinabalu a été désigné comme le Centre de diversité des plantes pour la région de l'Asie du Sud-Est. Il est exceptionnellement riche en espèces, présentant des éléments des flores himalayenne, chinoise, australienne, malaise et pantropicale.

منتزه كينابالو

يُشرف على هذا المنتزه الذي يقع في إقليم صباح شمال جزيرة بورنيو، جبل كينابالو (4095 متر) وهو أعلى قمة جبليّة بين سلسلة جبال الهيمالايا وغينيا الجديدة. يحتوي هذا المنتزه على تشكيلةٍ واسعةٍ من المساكن: غابات مطرية مداريّة غنيّة تتألّف من سهل وتلة وغابة مدارية فيها جبل وفي المرتفعات، غابات جبلية وغابات مؤلّفة من الشجيرات الدائمة الخضار. أعطي منتزه كينابالو لقب مركز تنوّع النباتات في منطقة جنوب شرق آسيا. فهو غني بشكل فريد بالأنواع إذ نجد فيه تشكيلة نباتات من الهيمالايا والصين واستراليا وماليزيا ومن المناطق المدارية كافةً على سطح الأرض.

source: UNESCO/ERI

基纳巴卢山公园

基纳巴卢山公园,位于沙巴婆罗岛北端,被喜玛拉雅山和新几内亚之间的最高的山——基纳巴卢山(4095米)所环绕。公园植被丰富,从热带低地、雨林小山到热带高山森林、亚高山森林和生活在更高海拔的灌木,应有尽有。基纳巴卢山公园被誉为东南亚植物多样性展示中心,种类极其丰富,有喜玛拉雅山、中国、澳大利亚、马来西亚,以及泛热带的各种植物。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Национальный парк Кинабалу (штат Сабах, остров Борнео)

Парк расположен на северной оконечности острова Калимантан (Борнео), в штате Сабах, и включает гору Кинабалу (4095 м) – высочайшую вершину на всем пространстве от Гималаев до Новой Гвинеи. Здесь представлено большое разнообразие экосистем: от густых дождевых лесов, занимающих равнины и предгорья, до горных тропических лесов, субальпийских редколесий и высокогорных кустарников. Парк признан важным очагом распространения растений в Юго-Восточной Азии, так как здесь встречаются виды, свойственные флоре Гималаев, Китая, Австралии, Малайзии и тропическому поясу в целом.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Parque de Kinabalu

Situado en el Estado de Sabah, al norte de la isla de Borneo, el Parque de Kinabalu se extiende al pie del monte del mismo nombre, que con sus 4.095 metros de altura es el más elevado de los que se yerguen entre la cordillera del Himalaya y Nueva Guinea. El sitio posee una gran variedad de hábitats: bosques lluviosos tropicales de planicie y colina, bosques tropicales de montaña y, a mayor altura, bosques subalpinos con matorral de hoja perenne. Dada la gran riqueza de su vegetación –que cuenta con numerosas plantas autóctonas y especímenes de la flora pantropical y de las floras del Himalaya, China y Australia–, este parque ha sido designado Centro de Diversidad Botánica del Asia Sudoriental.

source: UNESCO/ERI

キナバル自然公園

source: NFUAJ

Park Kinabalu

Het park Kinabalu ligt in de staat Sabah op het noordelijke uiteinde van het eiland Borneo. Het wordt gedomineerd door de berg Kinabalu (4.095 meter), de hoogste berg tussen de Himalaya en Nieuw-Guinea. Het park kent een breed scala aan leefgebieden; van rijk tropisch laagland en op heuvels gelegen regenwoud tot tropische bergwouden, subalpine woud en struikgewas in de hoger gelegen gebieden. Het gebied is aangewezen als Centrum voor Plantdiversiteit voor Zuidoost Azië en is uitzonderlijk rijk aan soorten, met flora uit de Himalaya, China, Australië, Maleisië en pantropische flora. Het merendeel van de zoogdieren, vogels, amfibieën en ongewervelde dieren in Kinabalu is bedreigd en kwetsbaar.

Source: unesco.nl

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Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

Located in the State of Sabah, Malaysia, on the northern end of the island of Borneo, Kinabalu Park World Heritage property covers 75,370 ha. Dominated by Mount Kinabalu (4,095m), the highest mountain between the Himalayas and New Guinea, it holds a distinctive position for the biota of Southeast Asia.  Geologically, Kinabalu Park is a granite intrusion formed 15 million years ago and thrust upward one million years ago by tectonic movements and shaped by forces that continue to define its landscape. Despite its geological youth it is exceptionally high in species with living relics of natural vegetation remaining, over 93% of the Park area.

 

The altitudinal range of the property, 152m – 4,095m, presents a wide array of habitats from rich tropical lowland and hill rainforest (35% of the park) to tropical montane forest (37%), and sub-alpine forest and scrub at the highest elevations. Ultramafic (serpentine) rocks cover about 16% of the park and have vegetation specific to this substrate. The property has been identified as a Centre of Plant Diversity for Southeast Asia; it contains representatives from at least half of all Borneo’s plant species and is exceptionally rich in species with elements from the Himalayas, China, Australia, Malaysia, and pan tropical floras. With records of half of all Borneo’s birds, mammals and amphibian species and two-thirds of all Bornean reptiles the property is both species-rich and an important centre for endemism.

 

Criterion (ix): Kinabalu Park has an exceptional array of naturally functioning ecosystems. A number of processes actively provide ideal conditions for the diverse biota, high endemism and rapid evolutionary rates. Several factors combine to influence these processes; (1) the great altitudinal and climatic gradient from tropical forest to alpine conditions; (2) steeply dissected topography causing effective geographical isolation over short distances; (3) the diverse geology with many localised edaphic conditions, particularly the ultramafic substrates; (4) the frequent climate oscillations influenced by El Niño events; and (5) geological history of the Malay archipelago and proximity to the much older Crocker Range.

 

Criterion (x): Floristically species-rich and identified as a globally important Centre of Plant Endemism, Kinabalu Park contains an estimated 5,000-6,000 vascular plant species including representatives from more than half the families of all flowering plants. The presence of 1,000 orchid species, 78 species of Ficus, and 60 species of ferns is indicative of the botanical richness of the property. The variety of Kinabalu’s habitats includes six vegetation zones, ranging from lowland rainforest to alpine scrub at 4,095m. Faunal diversity is also high and the property is an important centre for endemism. The majority of Borneo’s mammals, birds, amphibians and invertebrates (many threatened and vulnerable) are known to occur in the park including; 90 species of lowland mammal, 22 mammal species in the montane zone and 326 bird species.

 

Integrity

The boundaries of Kinabalu Park encompass the main bulk of Mount Kinabalu, including all remaining naturally forested slopes. The property thus incorporates the natural diversity and habitats that constitute Kinabalu’s outstanding natural heritage values. The boundaries are clearly delineated, surveyed and demarcated on the ground and regular patrols are conducted to monitor pressures and avoid any impacts on the values of the property. Implementation of strong protection and enforcement measures ensures that the integrity of the property and its natural values are maintained.

 

Settlement, agricultural development, and logging occur right up to the boundary in many places. Pressure for modification to the boundaries has resulted in losses of integrity in some areas and continued regulation of development in key strategic locations outside the park is required to prevent further impacts. Current levels of patrolling and clearly defined and marked boundaries continue to ensure that threats from encroachment remain minimal.

 

Protection and management requirements

Legislation and institutional structures of Kinabalu Park are established under the Parks Enactment 1984 and Amendment of 2007, which specify functions, procedures, protection and control of the property. The Board of Trustees of the Sabah Parks, under the jurisdiction of the State Ministry of Tourism Development, Environment, Science and Technology has ownership of the property and is responsible for its management. Both the state and federal government have powers to pass legislation, provided consultation is undertaken. However, Malaysia’s national park act does not apply to Sabah and as such the state level of government has the prime responsibility for management of the property and enforcement of legislation.

 

The management plan of the property was prepared in 1993 providing guidance to address these management issues and is backed and supported by adequate legislation and policies of the State. Updating of the management plan is required to ensure current effective management practices and policies continue to ensure future protection.

 

The property sets a high standard of protected area management in Southeast Asia and staffing and budget levels are adequate for current needs. Although much of the lowland forest of the region has been transformed to other uses and the park is becoming an “island in a sea” of agriculture and other developments, it remains in an excellent state of conservation. The State Government closed mining activity bordering the Park, and logging encroachment has been successfully controlled. The improved park enforcement and prosecution capability is effective in controlling all significant threats.

 

Key management issues are growing pressure from commercial tourism, adjacent land uses, encroachment, and the need for increased capacity building, and greater public awareness. Tourism pressures are high and growing but impacts are currently under control, and intensive visitor facility development is kept to the margins of the park. Extensive planning and management will be required to ensure impacts from tourism levels within the park are limited as the number of visitors’ increases.

 

In the long term, the property would benefit from designation of buffer zones, assignment of highly appropriate and competent officers and supporting staff, strengthening the community support through a participation programme, and revising, enhancing, and strengthening the existing management plan using holistic planning process and approaches. All these are currently under active consideration. The property has been subject to extensive research and has an excellent collection of specimens along with sufficient research facilities. Integration of the results obtained from research and with the management actions and decisions will assist in ensuring the long-term conservation of the property and its unique and important natural values.

 

Long Description

As the highest mountain between the Himalayas and New Guinea, Mount Kinabalu (4,095 m) holds a distinctive position for the biota of South-East Asia. Kinabalu is a granite intrusion formed 15 million years ago by the hardening of a mass of molten rock that rose beneath the sedimentary rocks of Borneo's Crocker Range. 1 million years ago this pluton was thrust upward by tectonic movements which continue to this day. The sandstone and shale that once covered the granite have been eroded to reveal the underlying rock. During the Pleistocene, glaciers covered Kinabalu's summit, scouring the granite plateau and sharpening the jagged peaks above the ice. The ice sheet disappeared 10,000 years ago. Since then, wind and water have sculpted the summit peaks further to create pinnacles and deep valleys.

Natural vegetation covers 93% of the park with rich tropical lowland and hill rainforest (dominated by diptocarps) amounting to 35%. Tropical montane forest covers another 37% of the park with subalpine forest and evergreen scrub found at the higher elevations. Of particular conservation significance are vegetation types developed on ultramafic (serpentine) rocks. Ultramafic vegetation covers about 16% of the park and contains many species restricted to this substrate.

Kinabalu has been identified as a Centre of Plant Diversity. Despite its geological youth, it is exceptionally rich in species with elements from the Himalayas, China, Australia, Malesia and Pantropical floras. The park has between 5,000-6,000 vascular plant species, 1,000 of which are orchids. It is particularly rich in Ficus (78 taxa), ferns (610 species) and Nepenthes (9 species of pitcher plant). Rafflesia, a rare parasitic plant, is also found. The mountain flora has diverse 'living fossils' such as the celery pine and the trig-oak, the evolutionary link between oaks and beeches.

The variety of Kinabalu's habitats includes 6 vegetation zones from lowland rainforest through to alpine scrub at 4,095 m. Faunal diversity is also high with the majority of Borneo's mammals, birds, amphibians and invertebrates (many threatened and vulnerable) known to occur in the park. It is clear that Kinabalu Park contains the important and significant habitats for the in-situ conservation of biological diversity.

The high species diversity of Kinabalu results from a number of factors: the great altitudinal and climatic gradient from tropical forest to alpine conditions; precipitous topography causing effective geographical isolation over short distances; the diverse geology with many localized edaphic conditions, particularly the ultramafic substrates; the frequent climate oscillations influenced by El Niño events; and geological history of the Malay archipelago and proximity to the much older Crocker Range.

The above processes provide ideal conditions for a diverse biota, high endemism and rapid evolutionary rates. Wildlife is also diverse with 90 species of lowland mammal and 22 others found in the montane zone. Four species of primate occur and 326 bird species have been recorded. Mount Kinabalu is thus both species-rich and an important centre for endemism. Half of all Borneo's birds, mammals and amphibian species including many rare and endangered species occur in the park. Two-thirds of all Bornean reptiles and at least half of its plant species are represented in the park.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC