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Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System

Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System

Construction of the Dujiangyan irrigation system began in the 3rd century B.C. This system still controls the waters of the Minjiang River and distributes it to the fertile farmland of the Chengdu plains. Mount Qingcheng was the birthplace of Taoism, which is celebrated in a series of ancient temples.

Mont Qingcheng et système d’irrigation de Dujiangyan

La construction du système d'irrigation de Dujiangyan a commencé au IIIe siècle av. J.-C. Le système continue de réguler les eaux de la rivière Minjiang et de les distribuer sur les terres fertiles des plaines de Chengdu. Le Mont Qingcheng est le berceau du taoïsme qui est célébré par une série de temples anciens.

جبل كينشينغ ونظام دوجيانغان للريّ

بدأ بناء نظام دوجيانغان للري في القرن الثالث ق.م. وهو لا زال ينظم دفق مياه نهر مينجيانغ ويوزّعها على أراضي سهول شينغدو الخصبة. وجبل كينشينغ هو مهد الطاويّة التي يُحتفى بها بوجود سلسلة من المعابد القديمة.

source: UNESCO/ERI

青城山—都江堰

都江堰灌溉系统始建于公元前3世纪,至今仍控制着岷江的水流,灌溉着成都平原肥沃的农田。青城山是中国道教的发源地,因许多古庙著称。

source: UNESCO/ERI

Гора Цинчэншань и древняя оросительная система Дуцзянъянь

Строительство оросительной системы Дуцзянъянь началось в III в. до н.э. Она до сих пор регулирует воды реки Миньцзян и распределяет ее по плодородным угодьям равнины Чэнду. Гора Цинчэншань была местом зарождения даосизма, что отмечено несколькими старинными храмами.

source: UNESCO/ERI

Monte Qingcheng y sistema de irrigación de Dujiangyan

La construcción del sistema de regadío de Dujiangyan comenzó en el siglo III a.C., pero todavía sigue regulando las aguas del río Minjiang y distribuyéndolas por las fértiles llanuras de Chengdu. El Monte Qingcheng es la cuna del taoísmo y posee toda una serie de templos antiguos que conmemoran el nacimiento de esta doctrina.

source: UNESCO/ERI

青城山と都江堰水利(灌漑)施設

source: NFUAJ

Berg Qingcheng en het Dujiangyan irrigatiesysteem

De aanleg van het irrigatiesysteem van Dujiangyan begon in de 3e eeuw voor Christus onder leiding van Li Bing, magistraat van de Qin dynastie. Het Lidui gebied werd bewerkt, kanalen werden gegraven om overstroming tegen te gaan en om een weg voor het water te creëren zodat aangrenzende akkers geïrrigeerd zouden kunnen worden. Daarmee werd een 'land van overvloed' geschapen. Het water van de Minjiang rivier wordt tegenwoordig nog steeds door dit systeem gereguleerd. De berg Qingcheng was de geboorteplaats van het taoïsme – een van de meest invloedrijke religies van Oost-Azië in de geschiedenis – wat zich uit in talrijke oude tempels in het gebied.

Source: unesco.nl

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Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

The Dujiangyan irrigation system, located in the western portion of the Chengdu flatlands at the junction between the Sichuan basin and the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, is an ecological engineering feat originally constructed around 256 BC. Modified and enlarged during the Tang, Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties, it uses natural topographic and hydrological features to solve problems of diverting water for irrigation, draining sediment, flood control, and flow control without the use of dams. Today the system comprises two parts: the Weir Works, located at an altitude of 726m, the highest point of the Chengdu plain 1km from Dujiangyan City, and the irrigated area. Three key components of the Weir Works control the water from the upper valley of the Minjiang River: the Yuzui Bypass Dike, the Feishayan Floodgate, and the Baopingkou Diversion Passage. Together with ancillary embankments and watercourses including the Baizhang Dike, the Erwang Temple Watercourse and the V-Shaped Dike, these structures ensure a regular supply of water to the Chengdu plains. The system has produced comprehensive benefits in flood control, irrigation, water transport and general water consumption. Begun over 2,250 years ago, it now irrigates 668,700 hectares of farmland.

Mount Qingcheng, dominating the Chengdu plains to the south of the Dujiangyan Irrigation System, is a mountain famous in Chinese history as the place where in 142 CE the philosopher Zhang Ling founded the doctrine of Chinese Taoism. Most of the essential elements of Taoism culture are embodied in the teachings of Taoism that emanated from the temples that were subsequently built on the mountain during the Jin and Tang dynasties. The mountain resumed its role as the intellectual and spiritual centre of Taoism in the 17th century. The eleven important Taoist temples on the mountain reflect the traditional architecture of western Sichuan and include the Erwang Temple, the Fulong Temple, the Changdao Temple built over the place where Zhang Ling preached his doctrines, and the Jianfu Palace (formerly the Zhangren Temple).

 

Criterion (ii): The Dujiangyan Irrigation System, begun in the 2nd century BCE, is a major landmark in the development of water management and technology, and is still discharging its functions perfectly.

 

Criterion (iv): The immense advances in science and technology achieved in ancient China are graphically illustrated by the Dujiangyan Irrigation System.

 

Criterion (vi): The temples of Mount Qingcheng are closely associated with the foundation of Taoism, one of the most influential religions of East Asia over a long period of history.

 

Integrity

Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System have been completely preserved, with all necessary attributes demonstrating the outstanding universal value of the property included inside the property area and buffer zone. They express the importance of utilizing natural features to their fullest in constructing an irrigation system as well as Qingcheng Mountain's importance as one of the birth places of Tao ideology.

 

Authenticity                                                  

Dujiangyan Irrigation System is not only a living heritage of 2,000 year-old design and engineering ideas; it is also still in use today. The functions, religious traditions and the special religious status of the Taoist temple cluster of Mount Qingcheng are fully preserved while still maintaining traditional building styles. Furthermore, internationally accepted protection guidelines and rules have been adhered in conservation and repair projects in terms of location, design, materials, and techniques.

 

Protection and management requirements

Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System were inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2000. It has also been declared a State Priority Protected Site, among the first batch of National Scenic Areas and Historical Sites, and a National ISO14000 Demonstration Area. Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System are protected by several national laws including the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Cultural Relics; Environmental Protection Law of the People’s Republic of China, and Scenic Spots and Historical Sites Regulations. In addition to national laws, Sichuan Province has also enacted its own laws, including the Regulations on Conservation of Heritage of Sichuan Province and Regulations on Management of Scenic Spots and Historical Sites of Sichuan Province. The buffer zone of the property has been designated.

Currently, the conservation condition of both properties is excellent. During the Sichuan earthquake on May 12th, 2008, Dujiangyan Irrigation System was basically undamaged, but some Taoist shrines were damaged to varying degrees. Subsequently, these ancient structures were successfully repaired with the help of the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, Shanghai Municipal Government and the Macao Foundation. The Outstanding Universal Value of Mount Qingcheng and the Dujiangyan Irrigation System is kept through regular and rigorous maintenance and protection of the properties.

Long Description

The Dujiangyan Irrigation System, begun in the 2nd century BC, is a major landmark in the development of water management and technology, and is still discharging its functions perfectly. It graphically illustrates the immense advances in science and technology achieved in ancient China. The temples of Mount Qingcheng are closely associated with the foundation of Taoism, one of the most influential religions of East Asia over a long period of history.

In 256 BC Li Bing, Shu Kingdom magistrate of the Qin dynasty, selected the mountain outlet of the Minjiang River, with its abundant water flow, as the site for an irrigation system. This involved cutting the Lidui platform, digging canals to avoid the risk of flooding, and opening up a navigation route; at the same time the neighbouring farmland would be irrigated, creating a 'Land of Abundance'.

During the Tang dynasty (618-907) large-scale water conservancy and irrigation projects were carried out. The system was rationalized during the Song dynasty (960-1279) into three main water-courses, three canals and fourteen branches, with coordinated maintenance and water control. During the Yuan dynasty (1206-1368) additional projects were carried out, and this process continued throughout the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). Incessant warfare at the end of the Ming dynasty and the early years of the Qing dynasty (1644-1913) resulted in the system falling into disrepair, but this was eventually set to rights.

In AD 142 the philosopher Zhang Ling founded the doctrine of Taoism on Mount Qingcheng, and in the following year he took up permanent residence in what became known as the Celestial Cave of the Tianshi (the name given to the spiritual head of the Taoist religion). During the Jin dynasty (265-420) a number of Taoist temples were built on the mountain, and it became the centre from which the teachings of Taoism were disseminated widely throughout China.

The irrigation system consists of two principal components, the Weir Works and the irrigated area. The Weir Works form the heart of the system. It receives water from the upper valley of the Minjiang River. There are three main elements. The Yuzui Bypass Dyke is located at the outfall of the Minjiang River. Water from the upper valley is diverted into the Outer and Inner Canals: the former follows the course of the Minjiang River and the latter flows to the Chengdu plain through the Baopingkou Diversion Passage. It serves the essential function of bypassing the considerable amount of silt brought down by the river. It makes full use of the bend, directing surface water with low concentrations of silt into the Inner Canal and the heavily silted deeper water into the Outer Canal.

The Feiyashan Floodgate is situated between the lower end of the Yuzui Bypass Dyke and the V-Shaped Dyke. Its upper end is 710 m from the Bypass Dyke and 120 m from the Baopingkou Diversion Passage. The principal function of the Floodgate is to transfer overflow, together with silt and pebbles, from the Inner to the Outer Canal. When water flow in the Inner Canal is low, the Floodgate ceases its draining function and transfers water into the Weir Works to ensure the supply of irrigation water to the Chengdu Plains. The Baopingkou Diversion Passage lies between the Lidui Platform south of Dujiangyan City and the cliff facing it, an enormous engineering project that dates back to the beginning of the Irrigation System in the 3rd century BC. It is able to control and maintain the water flow to the Chengdu irrigated plains automatically, even in periods of drought or flooding.

Mount Qingcheng dominates the Chengdu plains. There are eleven temples on Mount Qingcheng of special significance in the field of Taoist architecture because, unlike Mount Wudang temples, they do not reproduce the features of imperial courts but the traditional architecture of western Sichuan. The Erwang Temple west of Dujiangyan City was considerably enlarged during the Song dynasty (960-1279) and substantially reconstructed in the 17th century. It is constructed of wood and is located on a commanding point of the mountain, overlooking the river. The carvings inside the temple record the history and achievements of water control.

Source: UNESCO/CLT/WHC
Historical Description

- The Dujiangyan irrigation system

In 256 BCE Li Bing, Shu Kingdom magistrate of the Qin Dynasty, selected the mountain outlet of the Minjiang river, with its abundant water flow, as the site for an irrigation system. This involved cutting the Lidui platform, digging canals to avoid the risk of flooding, and opening up a navigation route; at the same time the neighbouring farmland would be irrigated, creating an "Land of Abundance." These works were extended in 141 BCE by the magistrate Wen Weng.

During the Tang Dynasty (618-907) large-scale waterconservancy and irrigation projects were carried out, including the Baizhang, Mizao, and Tongji embankments and the Wansui pool, providing the Chengdu plain with a network of weirs and canals.

The system was rationalized during the Song Dynasty (960- 1279) into three main water-courses, three canals, and fourteen branches, with a coordinated programme of maintenance and water control. The system was extended and additional works were carried out (the Sili and Shabo embankments), providing irrigation to twelve counties.

Important experimental work took place during the Yuan Dynasty (1206-1368): in particular the embankments were reinforced with iron bars. Additional construction projects were also carried out, and this process continued throughout the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), together with the introduction of a new control regime.

Incessant warfare at the end of the Ming Dynasty and the early years of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1913) resulted in the system falling into disrepair, but this was eventually set to rights. The local people were involved in major rehabilitation and repair projects and the irrigated area was extended to cover some 180,000ha. Since that time the system has been carefully maintained and progressively extended, so that it now covers 668,700ha in 34 counties. The original system has been preserved, but modern building materials and technology have been utilized to enable this ancient system to conform with the requirements of the present day.

- Mount Qingcheng

In 142 CE the philosopher Zhang Ling founded the doctrine of Taoism on Mount Qingcheng, and in the following year he took up permanent residence in what became known as the Celestial Cave of the Tianshi (the name given to the spiritual head of the Taoist religion). During the Jin Dynasty (265-420) a number of Taoist temples were built on the mountain, and it became the centre from which the teachings of Taoism were disseminated widely throughout China. During the Tang Dynasty the works of Du Guangting, one of the most important figures in Chinese thought and science, were collected together there as what came to be known as the "Taoist Scriptures."

The troubled period at the end of the Ming Dynasty and the beginning of the Qing Dynasty, in the 17th century, saw Taoist scholars and disciples converging on Qingcheng from all over China. Thereafter the sacred mountain resumed its role as the intellectual and spiritual centre of Taoism, which it has retained to the present day.

Source: Advisory Body Evaluation