This document is a partial export of the World Heritage Policy Compendium


3    Policies Regarding CONSERVATION of World Heritage Properties

Conservation of cultural and natural heritage is at the core of the Convention. Conservation includes effective and active measures that can be taken by States Parties to ensure the identification, protection, presentation and transmission of heritage.

There is no single definition of conservation in relation to both cultural and natural heritage. However, with regards to cultural heritage ‘all operations designed to understand a property, know its history and meaning, ensure its material safeguard, and, if required, its restoration and enhancement’ could be part of its conservation (Nara Document on Authenticity). Conservation of natural heritage refers to the protection, care, management and maintenance of ecosystems, habitats, wildlife species and populations, within or outside of their natural environments, in order to safeguard the natural conditions for their long-term permanence (IUCN).

The Conservation theme includes policies related to protection, management, monitoring, impact assessments, factors affecting the properties, tourism and sustainable development.

3.5    Factors affecting properties

3.5.2    Transportation infrastructure

The  physical 'footprint' and derived effects of use (includes visitor transportation infrastructure).
Ground transport infrastructure (For example: Roads, Car parks, Railways, including easements). Air transport infrastructure (For example: Airports, Airstrips). Marine transport infrastructure (For example: Harbour & port facilities). Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure (For example: Effects of vehicle traffic on roadways, Effects of shipping traffic in shipping routes, Effects of air traffic).

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee requests Heritage Impact Assessments and Environmental Impact Assessments of all significant development proposals in the property and of any major transportation infrastructure project, before approval for the schemes is granted and prior to making any decisions that would be difficult to reverse, including definitive location and plans for construction, in order to identify any adverse impacts on the property and ways to mitigate these impacts, and to submit the HIA and the EIA to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation). [1]

ANNEX I. List of documents and texts

Decision 32COM 7B.122 Maya site of Copan (Honduras) (C 129)

Decision 36COM 7B.80 Centennial Hall in Wroclaw (Poland) (C 1165)

Decision 36COM 7B.100 Maya Site of Copan (Honduras) (C 129)

Decision 37COM 7B.65 Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) (C 121)

Decision 38COM 7B.62 Banc d’Arguin National Park (Mauritania) (N 506)

Decision 39COM 7B.91 Maya Site of Copan (Honduras) (C 129)

Decision 40COM 7B.55 Auschwitz Birkenau German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940-1945) (Poland) (C 31)

Decision 41COM 7B.31 Chitwan National Park (Nepal) (N 284)

Decision 41COM 7B.59 Churches of Chiloe (Chile) (C 971)

Decision 41COM 7B.69 Lamu Old Town (Kenya) (C 1055)





[1] See for example Decisions 32COM 7B.122 , 36COM 7B.80 , 36COM 7B.100 , 37COM 7B.65 , 38COM 7B.62 , 39COM 7B.91 , 40COM 7B.55 , 41COM 7B.31 , 41COM 7B.59 , 41COM 7B.69 .