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Index


Introduction

The World Heritage Policy Compendium is a database of the policies that have guided the implementation of the World Heritage Convention since its adoption in 1972. The Policy Compendium assembles the policies adopted by the World Heritage Committee and General Assembly of States Parties in their decisions, resolutions and other strategic texts.

In accordance with a sequence of decisions taken by the World Heritage Committee since 2011 (35 COM 12B, 37 COM 13, 39 COM 12, 40 COM 12, 42 COM 11), it aims to provide States Parties and stakeholders with a consolidated source of policy decisions made under the Convention. In addition, it could guide policy makers and heritage professionals in establishing adequate mechanisms within their legislation and heritage protection and conservation mechanisms.

Policy applies to a class of circumstances and enables consistency. Consistency is important not just within the World Heritage Committee, but also in the actions of other World Heritage actors including the Advisory Bodies, States Parties, local governments and local communities. There is a need to promote consistency between the World Heritage Convention and other United Nations programmes, which create a number of policies that are relevant to the conservation of World Heritage properties. The World Heritage Convention and its implementation can therefore clearly benefit from this repository of knowledge compiled into the Policy Compendium.

It is important to understand that the Policy Compendium does not create new policies, but compiles already existing ones, adopted by World Heritage Convention governing bodies. Therefore, it does not replace any other previous statutory document, text or decision adopted, but provides a new source and instrument to understand the Convention from a policy-development approach.

 

Objectives

The Policy Compendium aims to:

 

Structure of the Policy Compendium

The Compendium is organized thematically according to the 5 Strategic Objectives of the World Heritage Convention – Credibility, Conservation, Capacity Building, Communication and Communities – and a further category of General Policies as a first chapter.

These six themes are further organized into thematic subcategories, reflecting other classifications present at different World Heritage Convention tools (for example, Periodic Reporting, State of Conservation database, etc.).

 

Target audiences

The World Heritage Committee and the States Parties to the Convention are the primary audience for the Policy Compendium, with those directly involved in the processes of implementation and the management of World Heritage properties (including Advisory Bodies to the Convention, regional and local authorities, site managers, owners of/within World Heritage properties, local communities, including indigenous peoples, and other relevant stakeholders) as another major audience.

There is also a wider audience for academics and others with an interest in the World Heritage Convention.

 

Background

The development of the Policy Compendium should be considered within the overall context of the reflection undertaken since 2011 on the future of the 1972 Convention. The objective of this reflection is to strengthen the worldwide implementation of the Convention, including through the revision of working procedures and statutory documents.

At its 35th session (UNESCO, 2011), the World Heritage Committee launched an initiative to develop a document capturing the range of policies that the Committee and the General Assembly adopt (Decision 35 COM 12B). The preparatory phase of the project was launched in 2015 thanks to the funding provided by the Government of Australia. A Scoping Study on the framework and content of the compendium was carried out by ICCROM and the World Heritage Centre and was approved by the World Heritage Committee Decision 40 COM 12, with a proposal to rename the document as ‘A Compendium of Policy of the World Heritage Convention’, in short ‘Policy Compendium’.

From 2017 to 2019, the World Heritage Centre assembled policies for the development of the Policy Compendium, working together with a group of cultural and natural World Heritage experts, the Advisory Bodies to the World Heritage Convention, and in consultation with other World Heritage stakeholders. This work was organized in 2 phases:

The Policy Compendium is by force a living-document: new policies will be created in the coming years, so the Compendium’s online tool will be enriched and updated accordingly to reflect new ideas and decisions made by the Convention governing bodies.

 

Methodological framework and key information about the Compendium

As mentioned, the Policy Compendium is a consolidated source of policy decisions in the framework of the World Heritage Convention. Original sources are the primary base for this exercise, and the extracted paragraphs keep the original wording of the Document or Decision. In the interests of coherence, in certain cases minor changes or additions have been made, and there are identified with square brackets. In order to easily identify the original context of each text, all the extracted paragraphs refer to the original source.

The following hierarchy of texts was established to reflect the nature of the policies included:

In addition to the analysis and identification of policies from the above-mentioned sources, and in order to give a more holistic approach, a case law analysis was carried out, based on decisions of the World Heritage Committee concerning the State of Conservation of World Heritage Properties and Nominations. This analysis provides a range of texts containing policies on similar matters that have been included as a source in the Policy Compendium.

For the case law exercise, decisions were selected based on research on themes and possible threats, among other elements. The current state of conservation of specific sites was not a consideration in the selection of decisions to include or not in the draft Policy Compendium: the threshold was that the Committee applied the policy contained in the decisions in a consistent way.

For those paragraphs related to case law, the paragraphs’ content is not linked to one single decision, but to different decisions that have had a similar approach to a specific subject. In some cases, the wording could be similar to some particular decisions of a site; however, the text aims to highlight common approaches to general issues promoted by the World Heritage Committee, and not to any issue on a specific site.

In addition to the policy sources above, other relevant standard-setting texts and documents of UNESCO and the United Nations system are listed in the Other Reference Texts section of the Compendium.

The structure of the Policy Compendium is organized around the 5 Strategic Objectives of the Convention – known as the 5Cs –, including Credibility, Conservation, Capacity Building, Communication and Communities, together with a first chapter on General Policies. It is essential to understand that a higher number of references in one or another chapter does not mean any type of hierarchy or consideration about the importance of the theme, but it is just related to the existing references in the consulted documents and decisions made in the framework of the Convention.

 

 


1    General Policies Regarding the World Heritage Convention

The World Heritage Convention, adopted in 1972, is a legally binding instrument providing an intergovernmental framework for international cooperation for the identification and conservation of the world's most outstanding natural and cultural properties.

The Convention sets out the duties of States Parties in identifying potential sites and their role in protecting and preserving them. By ratifying the Convention, each country enters in a system of international cooperation to protect the world cultural and natural heritage and pledges to conserve the World Heritage sites situated on its territory. The States Parties are encouraged to integrate the protection of cultural and natural heritage into regional planning programmes, set up staff and services at their sites, undertake scientific and technical conservation research and adopt measures that give this heritage a function in community day-to-day life.

The Advisory Bodies to the World Heritage Committee are ICCROM (the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property), ICOMOS (the International Council on Monuments and Sites) and IUCN – the International Union for Conservation of Nature.

The General Policies of the Convention theme includes policies related to the overarching framework of the Convention; the links with other standard-setting instruments, cooperation among States and implementation of the Convention at the national level.


1.1    Fundamental World Heritage policies

1.1.1    General

World Heritage Convention

Preamble

"(…) It is essential (…) to adopt new provisions in the form of a convention establishing an effective system of collective protection of the cultural and natural heritage of outstanding universal value, (…)."

Article 7

"For the purpose of this Convention, international protection of the world cultural and natural heritage shall be understood to mean the establishment of a system of international co-operation and assistance designed to support States Parties to the Convention in their efforts to conserve and identify that heritage."

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention

1. “(…) [The World Heritage Convention] is an integral part of UNESCO’s overarching mandate to foster equitable sustainable development and to promote peace and security (…)”.

3. “By identifying, protecting, conserving, presenting and transmitting to present and future generations irreplaceable cultural and natural heritage properties of Outstanding Universal Value (OUV), the World Heritage Convention, in itself, contributes significantly to sustainable development and the wellbeing of people At the same time, strengthening the three dimensions of sustainable development that are environmental sustainability, inclusive social development, and inclusive economic development, as well as the fostering of peace and security may bring benefits to World Heritage properties and support their OUV, if carefully integrated within their conservation and management systems”.

8. “In applying a sustainable development perspective within the implementation of the World Heritage Convention, States Parties should also recognize the close links and interdependence of biological diversity and local cultures within the socio-ecological systems of many World Heritage properties. These have often developed over time through mutual adaptation between humans and the environment, interacting with and affecting one another in complex ways, and are fundamental components of the resilience of communities. This suggests that any policy aiming to achieve sustainable development will necessarily have to take into consideration the interrelationship of biological diversity with the local cultural context”.

9. “All dimensions of sustainable development should apply to natural, cultural and mixed properties in their diversity. These dimensions are interdependent and mutually reinforcing, with none having predominance over another and each being equally necessary. States Parties should therefore review and reinforce governance frameworks within management systems of World Heritage properties in order to achieve the appropriate balance, integration and harmonization between the protection of OUV and the pursuit of sustainable development objectives. This will include the full respect and participation of all stakeholders and rights holders, including indigenous peoples and local communities, the setting up of effective inter-institutional coordination mechanisms and provisions for the systematic assessment of environmental, social, and economic impacts of all proposed developments, as well as effective monitoring through continuity in data collection against agreed indicators”.

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 4

“The cultural and natural heritage is among the priceless and irreplaceable assets, not only of each nation, but of humanity as a whole. The loss, through deterioration or disappearance, of any of these most prized assets constitutes an impoverishment of the heritage of all the peoples of the world. Parts of that heritage, because of their exceptional qualities, can be considered to be of “Outstanding Universal Value” and as such worthy of special protection against the dangers which increasingly threaten them.”

Paragraph 7

“The [World Heritage] Convention aims at the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of cultural and natural heritage of Outstanding Universal Value.”

Paragraph 14

“States Parties are encouraged to bring together their cultural and natural heritage experts at regular intervals to discuss the implementation of the Convention. States Parties may wish to involve representatives of the Advisory Bodies and other experts as appropriate.”

Paragraph 25

“In order to facilitate the implementation of the Convention, the Committee develops Strategic Objectives, (…) to ensure that new threats placed on World Heritage are addressed effectively.”

Paragraph 26

"The current Strategic Objectives (also referred to as “the 5 Cs”) are the following:

1. Strengthen the Credibility of the World Heritage List:
2. Ensure the effective Conservation of World Heritage Properties;
3. Promote the development of effective Capacity-building in States Parties:
4. Increase public awareness, involvement and support for World Heritage through Communication;
5. Enhance the role of Communities in the implementation of the World Heritage Convention."

1.1.2    World Heritage Committee

World Heritage Convention

Article 8

1. An Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the Cultural and Natural Heritage of Outstanding Universal Value, called "the World Heritage Committee", is hereby established within the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. It shall be composed of 15 States Parties to the Convention, elected by States Parties to the Convention meeting in general assembly during the ordinary session of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. The number of States members of the Committee shall be increased to 21 as from the date of the ordinary session of the General Conference following the entry into force of this Convention for at least 40 States.

2. Election of members of the Committee shall ensure an equitable representation of the different regions and cultures of the world.

3. A representative of the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (Rome Centre), a representative of the International Council of Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) and a representative of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), to whom may be added, at the request of States Parties to the Convention meeting in general assembly during the ordinary sessions of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, representatives of other intergovernmental or non-governmental organizations, with similar objectives, may attend the meetings of the Committee in an advisory capacity.


Article 9

3. States members of the Committee shall choose as their representatives persons qualified in the field of the cultural or natural heritage.

Rule 13.2 of the Rules of Procedure of the General Assembly to the States Parties
"Members of the World Heritage Committee may stand again for election after a gap of 6 years after the expiry of their mandate."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 35 COM 12B
14. "[The World Heritage Committee] recommends Committee members consider refraining from bringing forward new nominations that might be discussed during their term serving on the Committee, without prejudice to nomination files already submitted, deferred or referred during previous Committee sessions, or nominations from least represented States Parties (…)."

1.1.3    Funding

World Heritage Convention

Article 13.6

The Committee shall decide on the use of the resources of the Fund established under Article 15 of this Convention. It shall seek ways of increasing these resources and shall take all useful steps to this end.

Article 15

1. A Fund for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage of Outstanding Universal Value, called "the World Heritage Fund", is hereby established.

4. Contributions to the Fund and other forms of assistance made available to the Committee may be used only for such purposes as the Committee shall define. The Committee may accept contributions to be used only for a certain programme or project, provided that the Committee shall have decided on the implementation of such programme or project. No political conditions may be attached to contributions made to the Fund.

Article 16

1. Without prejudice to any supplementary voluntary contribution, the States Parties to this Convention undertake to pay regularly, every two years, to the World Heritage Fund, contributions, the amount of which, in the form of a uniform percentage applicable to all States, shall be determined by the General Assembly of States Parties to the Convention, meeting during the sessions of the General Conference of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (…).

Resolution 19 GA 8 of the General Assembly of States Parties to the World Heritage Convention
7. Takes note of the options proposed for allocating unrestricted supplementary voluntary contributions to the World Heritage Fund and, in order to help towards the sustainability of the World Heritage Fund, recommends to States Parties willing to make these contributions to apply one of the following options:

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 27 COM 11.3
4. “[The World Heritage Committee] encourages the World Heritage Centre to develop bilateral agreements with States Parties as well as partnerships with multilateral organisations, the private sector and other actors with a view to securing additional resources for the following priorities:

(i) Reinforcement of the staff of the World Heritage Centre,

(ii) Emergency International Assistance,

(iii) International Assistance to properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger,

(iv) Other International Assistance to States Parties, with priority to Preparatory Assistance,

(v) Funds to ensure that the Advisory Bodies have sufficient resources to enable them fulfill their obligations under the Convention”.
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 14

6. Emphasizing the urgency of securing adequate financial resources to achieve the objectives of the 1972 Conventionto identify and, in particular, to conserve the world's cultural and natural heritage of Outstanding Universal Value, especially in light of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and unprecedented threats such as climate change, natural disasters, and deliberate attacks on cultural heritage in territories affected by armed conflicts and terrorism.

8. Underscoring that sustainability of the World Heritage Fund and overall funding for World Heritage are a strategic issue and a shared responsibility which concerns States Parties and relevant partners, affecting the overall credibility of the World Heritage Convention, including effectiveness and efficiency of World Heritage protection.

17. [The World Heritage Committee] underscores that the highest ethical standards and principles must be upheld in all measures to enhance fundraising to maintain and promote the integrity of the Convention.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 14
2. [The World Heritage Committee] highlight[s] the priority that should be given to conservation and management of World Heritage properties, takes note of the efforts made and progress achieved in this regard by increasing the proportion of the World Heritage Fund dedicated to conservation for the latest biennia and encourages further increase of this proportion, as appropriate; 

4. [The World Heritage Committee] recalls that the payment of compulsory and assessed voluntary contributions is, as per Article 16 of the World Heritage Convention, an obligation incumbent on all States Parties which have ratified the Convention (…).

1.2    UNESCO standard-setting texts and synergies with other Conventions and Programmes

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention

28. “Sustainable development and the conservation of the world’s cultural and natural heritage are undermined by war, civil conflict and all forms of violence. The World Heritage Convention is an integral part of UNESCO’s established mandate to build bridges towards peace and security. It is therefore incumbent upon States Parties, in conformity also with provisions of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (The 1954 Hague Convention) and its two (1954 and 1999) Protocols, for the States that have ratified them, as well as in accordance with the UNESCO Declaration concerning the Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage (2003) and international customary law protecting cultural property in the event of armed conflict, to ensure that the implementation of the World Heritage Convention is used to promote the achievement and maintenance of peace and security between and within States Parties”.

29. “Recalling also the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001), States Parties should therefore acknowledge the reality of cultural diversity within and around many World Heritage properties, and promote a culturally pluralistic approach in strategies for their conservation and management. (…)”.

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 41

“The World Heritage Committee recognizes the benefits of closer co-ordination of its work with other UNESCO programmes and their relevant Conventions (…)”.

Paragraph 42

“The World Heritage Committee with the support of the Secretariat will ensure appropriate coordination and information-sharing between the World Heritage Convention and other Conventions, programmes and international organizations related to the conservation of cultural and natural heritage.”

Paragraph 44

Selected global Conventions and programmes relating to the protection of cultural and natural heritage

UNESCO Conventions and Programmes
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954)
Protocol I (1954)
Protocol II (1999)
http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=13637&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970)
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/illicit-trafficking-of-cultural-property/1970-convention/text-of-the-convention/

Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage (1972)
https://whc.unesco.org/en/conventiontext/

Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001)
http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/underwater-cultural-heritage/2001-convention/official-text/

Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003)
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001325/132540e.pdf

Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme
http://www.unesco.org/mab/

Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions (2005)
http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001429/142919e.pdf

Other Conventions

Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat (Ramsar) (1971)
https://treaties.un.org/doc/Publication/UNTS/Volume%20996/volume-996-I-14583-English.pdf

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (1973)
http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/text.shtml

Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) (1979)
http://www.unep-wcmc.org/cms/cms_conv.htm

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) (1982)
http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf

Convention on Biological Diversity (1992)
https://www.cbd.int/doc/legal/cbd-en.pdf 

UNIDROIT Convention on Stolen or Illegally Exported Cultural Objects (Rome, 1995)
https://www.unidroit.org/instruments/cultural-property/1995-convention 

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (New York, 1992)
https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 40 COM 7
15. "[The World Heritage Committee] recommends that the World Heritage Centre strengthen its relations with other organizations working on Climate Change, particularly with the UNFCCC and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) secretariats, and specifically with regard to the effect of Climate Change on World Heritage properties (…)."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7
22. "[The World Heritage Committee] reiterates the importance of States Parties undertaking the most ambitious implementation of the Paris Agreement of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (…) and strongly invites all States Parties to ratify the Paris Agreement at the earliest possible opportunity and to undertake actions to address Climate Change under the Paris Agreement consistent with their common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in the light of different national circumstances, that are fully consistent with their obligations within the World Heritage Convention to protect the OUV of all World Heritage properties."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 14
37. "[The World Heritage Committee] highlights the need to strengthen cooperation with other cultural heritage and biodiversity-related Conventions and intergovernmental programmes, with a view to contributing to improved conservation and sustainable management of World Heritage."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 5A
5. "[The World Heritage Committee] welcomes the increased collaboration among the Biodiversity-related Conventions through the Biodiversity Liaison Group and focused activities, including workshops, joint statements and awareness-raising."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 7
21. "[The World Heritage Committee] appeals to all Member States of UNESCO to cooperate in the fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural objects and illegal wildlife trade, as well as cultural heritage protection in general, including through the implementation of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 2199 (2015), 2253 (2015) and 2347 (2017) and of the 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import and Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property."
Resolution 16 GA 10 of the General Assembly of States Parties to the World Heritage Convention
7. "[The General Assembly] urges the States Parties to participate in the United Nations climate change conferences with a view to achieving a comprehensive post-Kyoto agreement, and to fund and support the research needs as identified in the adopted Policy document."

1.3    Shared Responsibility and International Cooperation

1.3.1    General

World Heritage Convention

Article 6

"1. Whilst fully respecting the sovereignty of the States on whose territory the cultural and natural heritage mentioned in Articles 1 and 2 is situated, and without prejudice to property right provided by national legislation, the States Parties to this Convention recognize that such heritage constitutes a world heritage for whose protection it is the duty of the international community as a whole to co-operate.

2. The States Parties undertake, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, to give their help in the identification, protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage referred to in paragraphs 2 and 4 of Article 11 if the States on whose territory it is situated so request.

3. Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to take any deliberate measures which might damage directly or indirectly the cultural and natural heritage referred to in Articles 1 and 2 situated on the territory of other States Parties to this Convention."

Recommendation concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and Natural Heritage

66. “Member States should co-operate with regard to the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage, seeking aid, if it seems desirable, from international organizations, both intergovernmental and non-governmental. Such multilateral or bilateral co-operation should be carefully co-ordinated and should take the form of measures such as the following:

a) exchange of information and of scientific and technical publications;

b) organization of seminars and working parties on particular subjects;

c) provision of study and travel fellowships, and of scientific, technical and administrative staff, and equipment;

d) provision of facilities for scientific and technical training abroad, by allowing young research workers and technicians to take part in architectural projects, archaeological excavations and the conservation of natural sites;

e) co-ordination, within a group of Member States, of large-scale projects involving conservation, excavations, restoration and rehabilitation work, with the object of making the experience gained generally available”.

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 215

“The Committee develops and coordinates international co-operation in the area of research needed for the effective implementation of the Convention. States Parties are also encouraged to make resources available to undertake research, since knowledge and understanding are fundamental to the identification, management, and monitoring of World Heritage properties.”

Strategic Action Plan for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention 2012-2022

“International cooperation and shared responsibility through the World Heritage Convention ensures effective conservation of our common cultural and natural heritage, nurtures respect and understanding among the world’s communities and cultures, and contributes to their sustainable development”.[1]

3. “Through cooperation, we seek:



[1]           Considered as “Our Vision for 2022” within the Strategic Action Plan for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention 2012-2022 (see page 2 of WHC-11/18.GA/11).

1.3.2    International Assistance

Paragraph 189

“The Committee shall allocate a specific, significant portion of the World Heritage Fund to financing of possible assistance to World Heritage properties inscribed on the List of World Heritage in Danger.”

Paragraph 233

“The Convention provides International Assistance to States Parties for the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage located on their territories and inscribed, or potentially suitable for inscription on the World Heritage List. International Assistance should be seen as supplementary to national efforts for the conservation and management of World Heritage and Tentative List properties when adequate resources cannot be secured at the national level.”

Paragraph 237

“States Parties in arrears of payment of their compulsory or voluntary contributions to the World Heritage Fund are not eligible for international assistance, it being understood that this provision does not apply to requests for emergency assistance.”

Paragraph 238

“To support its Strategic Objectives, the Committee also allocates International Assistance in conformity with the priorities set out in its decisions and in the Regional Programmes it adopts as a follow up to Periodic Reports.”

Paragraph 239

“(…) The following considerations govern the Committee’s decisions in granting International Assistance:

a) the likelihood that the assistance will have a catalytic and multiplier effect (“seed money”) and promote financial and technical contributions from other sources;

b) when funds available are limited and a selection has to be made, preference is given to:

. a Least Developed Country or Low Income Economy as defined by the United Nations Economic and Social Council's Committee for Development Policy, or
. a Lower Middle Income Country as defined by the World Bank, or
. a Small Island Developing State (SIDS), or
. a State Party in a post-conflict situation;

c) the urgency of the protective measures to be taken at World Heritage properties;

d) whether the legislative, administrative and, wherever possible, financial commitment of the recipient State Party is available to the activity;

e) the impact of the activity on furthering the Strategic Objectives decided by the Committee;

f) the degree to which the activity responds to needs identified through the reactive monitoring process and/or the analysis of regional Periodic Reports;

g) the exemplary value of the activity in respect to scientific research and the development of cost effective conservation techniques;

h) the cost of the activity and expected results; and

i) the educational value both for the training of experts and for the general public.”

Paragraph 240

“A balance will be maintained in the allocation of resources between cultural and natural heritage and between Conservation and Management and Preparatory Assistance (...)”.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 7
23. "[The World Heritage Committee] urges States Parties, in coordination with the World Heritage Centre, to give priority within international assistance in implementing emergency measures to mitigate significant damages resulting from natural disasters that are likely to affect the Outstanding Universal Value of World Heritage properties."

1.3.3    Regional cooperation

Paragraph 201

Periodic Reporting serves four main purposes:

a) to provide an assessment of the application of the World Heritage Convention by the State Party;

b) to provide an assessment as to whether the Outstanding Universal Value of the properties inscribed on the World Heritage List is being maintained over time;

c) to provide up-dated information about the World Heritage properties to record the changing circumstances and state of conservation of the properties;

d) to provide a mechanism for regional co-operation and exchange of information and experiences between States Parties concerning the implementation of the Convention and World Heritage conservation.”

Paragraph 205bis

“The Periodic Reporting process is used as an opportunity for regional exchange and cooperation and to enhance active co-ordination and synchronization between States Parties, particularly in the case of transboundary and transnational properties.”

1.4    Heritage policies at national level

World Heritage Convention

Article 4

“Each State Party to this Convention recognizes that the duty of ensuring the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage referred to in Articles 1 and 2 and situated on its territory, belongs primarily to that State. It will do all it can to this end, to the utmost of its own resources and, where appropriate, with any international assistance and co-operation, in particular, financial, artistic, scientific and technical, which it may be able to obtain”.


Article 5

“To ensure that effective and active measures are taken for the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage situated on its territory, each State Party to this Convention shall endeavour, in so far as possible, and as appropriate for each country:

(a) to adopt a general policy which aims to give the cultural and natural heritage a function in the life of the community and to integrate the protection of that heritage into comprehensive planning programmes;

(b) to set up within its territories, where such services do not exist, one or more services for the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage with an appropriate staff and possessing the means to discharge their functions;

(c) to develop scientific and technical studies and research and to work out such operating methods as will make the State capable of counteracting the dangers that threaten its cultural or natural heritage;

(d) to take the appropriate legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the identification, protection, conservation, presentation and rehabilitation of this heritage; and

(e) to foster the establishment or development of national or regional centres for training in the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage and to encourage scientific research in this field”.


Article 17

“The States Parties to this Convention shall consider or encourage the establishment of national public and private foundations or associations whose purpose is to invite donations for the protection of the cultural and natural heritage (...)”.

Recommendation concerning the Protection, at National Level, of the Cultural and Natural Heritage
3. "In conformity with their jurisdictional and legislative requirements, each State should formulate, develop and apply as far as possible a policy whose principal aim should be to co-ordinate and make use of all scientific, technical, cultural and other resources available to secure the effective protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage."

4. "The cultural and natural heritage represents wealth, the protection, conservation and presentation of which impose responsibilities on the States in whose territory it is situated, both vis-a-vis their own nationals and vis-a-vis the international community as a whole; Member States should take such action as may be necessary to meet these responsibilities."
Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 15

“While fully respecting the sovereignty of the States on whose territory the cultural and natural heritage is situated, States Parties to the Convention recognize the collective interest of the international community to cooperate in the protection of this heritage. States Parties to the World Heritage Convention, have the responsibility to:

a) ensure the identification, nomination, protection, conservation, presentation, and transmission to future generations of the cultural and natural heritage found within their territory, and give help in these tasks to other States Parties that request it;

b) adopt general policies to give the heritage a function in the life of the community;

c) integrate heritage protection into comprehensive planning programmes;

d) establish services for the protection, conservation and presentation of the heritage;

e) develop scientific and technical studies to identify actions that would counteract the dangers that threaten the heritage;

f) take appropriate legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures to protect the heritage;

g) foster the establishment or development of national or regional centres for training in the protection, conservation and presentation of the heritage and encourage scientific research in these fields;

h) not take any deliberate measures that directly or indirectly damage their heritage or that of another State Party to the Convention;

i) submit to the World Heritage Committee an inventory of properties suitable for inscription on the World Heritage List (referred to as a Tentative List);

j) make regular contributions to the World Heritage Fund, the amount of which is determined by the General Assembly of States Parties to the Convention;

k) consider and encourage the establishment of national, public and private foundations or associations to facilitate donations for the protection of World Heritage;

l) give assistance to international fund-raising campaigns organized for the World Heritage Fund;

m) use educational and information programmes to strengthen appreciation and respect by their peoples of the cultural and natural heritage defined in Articles 1 and 2 of the Convention, and to keep the public informed of the dangers threatening this heritage;

n) provide information to the World Heritage Committee on the implementation of the World Heritage Convention and state of conservation of properties.”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 5C
8. "[The World Heritage Committee] calls upon States Parties to ensure that sustainable development principles are mainstreamed into their national processes related to World Heritage, in full respect of the Outstanding Universal Value of World Heritage properties."

1.5    Relation between culture and nature

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention

8. “In applying a sustainable development perspective within the implementation of the World Heritage Convention, States Parties should also recognize the close links and interdependence of biological diversity and local cultures within the socio-ecological systems of many World Heritage properties. These have often developed over time through mutual adaptation between humans and the environment, interacting with and affecting one another in complex ways, and are fundamental components of the resilience of communities. This suggests that any policy aiming to achieve sustainable development will necessarily have to take into consideration the interrelationship of biological diversity with the local cultural context”.

11. “(…) A focus on cultural and biological diversity as well as the linkages between the conservation of cultural and natural heritage and the various dimensions of sustainable development will enable all those concerned to better engage with World Heritage, protect its OUV and fully harness its potential benefits for communities”.

15. “States Parties should ensure that biological and cultural diversity, as well as ecosystem services and benefits for people that contribute to environmental sustainability, are protected and enhanced within World Heritage properties, their buffer zones and their wider settings. To this end, States Parties should:

i. Integrate consideration for biological and cultural diversity as well as ecosystem services and benefits within the conservation and management of all World Heritage properties, including mixed and cultural ones,

ii. Avoid, and if not possible mitigate, all negative impacts on the environment and cultural diversity when conserving and managing World Heritage properties and their wider settings. This can be achieved by promoting environmental, social and cultural impact assessment tools when undertaking planning in sectors such as urban development, transport, infrastructure, mining and waste management - as well as by applying sustainable consumption and production patterns and promoting the use of renewable energy sources”.

World Heritage Capacity Building Strategy

4. “The Strategy (…) proposes a paradigm shift from treating natural and cultural heritage actors separately to the realization that capacity building actions can be strengthened by creating joint opportunities (…).”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7

37. "Recalling that the World Heritage Convention explicitly links the concepts of cultural and natural heritage, highlights the importance of promoting integrated approaches that strengthen holistic governance, improve conservation outcomes and contribute to sustainable development;

38. [The World Heritage Committee] notes with appreciation the growing interest and efforts by the States Parties and heritage practitioners to develop and apply integrated approaches to conservation of natural and cultural heritage, and encourages the States Parties, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, in cooperation with universities and other relevant actors, to continue and expand these efforts, in accordance with the Policy Document for the integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective into the Processes of the Convention (2015)."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee CONF 209 XIII.A.2-12
XIII.4 "[There is] (...) a draft unified set of criteria (...) to better reflect what has been described as the nature/culture continuum expressed at many World Heritage properties around the world".

2    Policies Regarding CREDIBILITY of the World Heritage List

The World Heritage List is a list of cultural and natural heritage deemed to be of 'Outstanding Universal Value' as defined in the World Heritage Convention. It is established, updated and published by the World Heritage Committee and is drawn from national inventories, further to proposals for inscription made by the respective States Parties.

The Credibility of the List refers to it as a representative and geographically balanced testimony of cultural and natural properties of Outstanding Universal Value.

The Credibility theme includes policies related to the World Heritage List, such as nominations, Outstanding Universal Value, Tentative Lists, the Upstream Process, the Global Strategy or type of property, among others.


2.1    Nominations to the World Heritage List

World Heritage Convention

Article 11

1. "Every State Party to this Convention shall, in so far as possible, submit to the World Heritage Committee an inventory of property forming part of the cultural and natural heritage, situated in its territory and suitable for inclusion in the list provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article.

2. On the basis of the inventories submitted by States in accordance with paragraph 1, the Committee shall establish, keep up to date and publish, under the title of "World Heritage List," a list of properties forming part of the cultural heritage and natural heritage, as defined in Articles 1 and 2 of this Convention, which it considers as having outstanding universal value in terms of such criteria as it shall have established. An updated list shall be distributed at least every two years.

3. The inclusion of a property in the World Heritage List requires the consent of the State concerned. The inclusion of a property situated in a territory, sovereignty or jurisdiction over which is claimed by more than one State shall in no way prejudice the rights of the parties to the dispute."

The Budapest Declaration on World Heritage

3. "(...)

b) [The World Heritage Committee invites States Parties to the Convention to] identify and nominate cultural and natural heritage properties representing heritage in all its diversity, for inclusion on the World Heritage List."

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 39

“A partnership approach to nomination, management and monitoring provides a significant contribution to the protection of World Heritage properties and the implementation of the Convention.

Paragraph 48

“Nominations of immovable heritage which are likely to become movable will not be considered.”

Paragraph 50

“States Parties are invited to submit nominations of properties of cultural and/or natural value considered to be of "Outstanding Universal Value" for inscription on the World Heritage List.”

Paragraph 53

“Nominations presented to the Committee shall demonstrate the full commitment of the State Party to preserve the heritage concerned, within its means. Such commitment shall take the form of appropriate policy, legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures adopted and proposed to protect the property and its Outstanding Universal Value.”

Paragraph 122

“Before States Parties begin to prepare a nomination of a property for inscription on the World Heritage List, they should become familiar with the nomination cycle, described in Paragraph 168. It is desirable to carry out initial preparatory work to establish that a property has the potential to justify Outstanding Universal Value, including integrity or authenticity, before the development of a full nomination dossier which could be expensive and time-consuming. Such preparatory work might include collection of available information on the property, thematic studies, scoping studies of the potential for demonstrating Outstanding Universal Value, including integrity or authenticity, or an initial comparative study of the property in its wider global or regional context, including an analysis in the context of the Gap Studies produced by the Advisory Bodies. This first phase of work will help to establish the feasibility of a possible nomination and avoid the use of resources on preparing nominations that may be unlikely to succeed. States Parties are encouraged to seek upstream advice from the relevant Advisory Body(ies) for this first phase as well as to contact the World Heritage Centre at the earliest opportunity in considering nominations to seek information and guidance.”

Paragraph 123

“Participation in the nomination process of local communities, indigenous peoples, governmental, non-governmental and private organizations and other stakeholders is essential to enable them to have a shared responsibility with the State Party in the maintenance of the property. States Parties are encouraged to prepare nominations with the widest possible participation of stakeholders and to demonstrate, as appropriate, that the free, prior and informed consent of indigenous peoples has been obtained, through, inter alia, making the nominations publicly available in appropriate languages and public consultations and hearings”.

2.2    Outstanding Universal Value

2.2.1    Outstanding Universal Value: definition and attributes

Paragraph 49

“Outstanding Universal Value means cultural and/or natural significance which is so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries and to be of common importance for present and future generations of all humanity. As such, the permanent protection of this heritage is of the highest importance to the international community as a whole. The Committee defines the criteria for the inscription of properties on the World Heritage List.”

Paragraph 78

“To be deemed of Outstanding Universal Value, a property must also meet the conditions of integrity and/or authenticity and must have an adequate protection and management system to ensure its safeguarding.”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 30 COM 9

3. "[The World Heritage Committee], conscious that outstanding universal value is a concept that shall embrace all cultures, regions and peoples, and does not ignore differing cultural interpretations of outstanding universal value because they originate from minorities, indigenous groups and/or local peoples,

4. Recognises that the identification of outstanding universal value on the basis of the established criteria needs to be analysed also in their cultural and natural context, and that in some instances, the tangible and intangible interpretations cannot be separated."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 32 COM 9
9. "[The World Heritage Committee] reinforces the rigorous, objective and consistent application of the three key tests to determine Outstanding Universal Value as set out in the Operational Guidelines:

a) the property must meet one or more of the 10 criteria (Paragraph 77);

b) the property must meet the conditions of integrity and/or authenticity (Paragraphs 79/95); and

c) the property must have an adequate protection and management system in place to ensure its safeguarding (Paragraph 78)."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 8

3. "[The World Heritage Committee considers that], in compliance with the Convention and the Operational Guidelines, Outstanding Universal Value is recognised at the time of inscription of a property on the World Heritage List and that no recognition of Outstanding Universal Value is foreseen prior to this stage (…)."

2.2.2    World Heritage criteria

a) General

World Heritage Convention

Article 11

5. "The Committee shall define the criteria on the basis of which a property belonging to the cultural or natural heritage may be included in either of the lists mentioned in paragraphs 2 and 4 of this article."

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 166

“Where a State Party wishes to have the property inscribed under additional, fewer or different criteria other than those used for the original inscription, it shall submit this request as if it were a new nomination (including the requirement to be previously included on the Tentative List – see paragraph 63 and 65). This re-nomination must be received by 1 February and will be evaluated in the full year and a half cycle of evaluation according to the procedures and timetable outlined in paragraph 168. Properties recommended will only be evaluated under the new criteria and will remain on the World Heritage List even if unsuccessful in having additional criteria recognized.”
Decision of the World Heritage Committee CONF 003 XI.35
(v) "Particular attention should be given to cases which fall under criterion (vi) so that the net result would not be a reduction in the value of the List, due to the large potential number of nominations as well as to political difficulties. Nominations concerning, in particular, historical events or famous people could be strongly influenced by nationalism or other particularisms in contradiction with the objectives of the World Heritage Convention."
Report of the Rapporteur, World Heritage Committee, Fourth Session, 1980

19. "(...)

(a) Because of the educational and public information purposes of the World Heritage List, the criteria for the inclusion of properties in the List have been elaborated with a view to enabling the Committee to act with full independence in evaluating the intrinsic merit of a property without regard to any other consideration (including the need for technical co-operation support).

(f) The criteria for the inclusion of cultural properties in the World Heritage List should always be seen in relation to one another and should be considered in the context of the definitions set out in· Article 1 of the Convention."

b) Specific considerations related to criterion (vi)

Report of the Rapporteur, World Heritage Committee, Third Session, 1979
J. Note 11 (iii) “In order to preserve its symbolic status as a monument to all the victims, Auschwitz should, it seems, remain in isolation. In other words, we recommend that it should stand alone among cultural properties as bearing witness to the depth of horror and of suffering, and the height of heroism, and that all other sites of the same nature be symbolized through it”.

Conclusions. “Sites representing the positive and negative sides of human history will only be invested with real force if we make the most remarkable into unique symbols, each one standing for the whole series of similar events”.

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 77

"Criterion vi [To] be directly or tangibly associated with events or living traditions, with ideas, or with beliefs, with artistic and literary works of outstanding universal significance. (The Committee considers that this criterion should preferably be used in conjunction with other criteria)."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee CONF 003 XII.46
31. “The Committee decided to enter Auschwitz concentration camp on the List as a unique site and to restrict the inscription of other sites of a similar nature.”

2.2.3    Authenticity

Paragraph 79

“Properties nominated under criteria (i) to (vi) must meet the conditions of authenticity. Annex 4 which includes the Nara Document on Authenticity, provides a practical basis for examining the authenticity of such properties and is summarized below.”

Paragraph 80

“The ability to understand the value attributed to the heritage depends on the degree to which information sources about this value may be understood as credible or truthful. Knowledge and understanding of these sources of information, in relation to original and subsequent characteristics of the cultural heritage, and their meaning as accumulated over time, are the requisite bases for assessing all aspects of authenticity.”

Paragraph 81

“Judgments about value attributed to cultural heritage, as well as the credibility of related information sources, may differ from culture to culture, and even within the same culture. The respect due to all cultures requires that cultural heritage must be considered and judged primarily within the cultural contexts to which it belongs.”

Paragraph 84

“The use of all these sources permits elaboration of the specific artistic, historic, social, and scientific dimensions of the cultural heritage being examined. "Information sources" are defined as all physical, written, oral, and figurative sources, which make it possible to know the nature, specificities, meaning, and history of the cultural heritage.”

Paragraph 85

“When the conditions of authenticity are considered in preparing a nomination for a property, the State Party should first identify all of the applicable significant attributes of authenticity. The statement of authenticity should assess the degree to which authenticity is present in, or expressed by, each of these significant attributes.”

Paragraph 86

“In relation to authenticity, the reconstruction of archaeological remains or historic buildings or districts is justifiable only in exceptional circumstances. Reconstruction is acceptable only on the basis of complete and detailed documentation and to no extent on conjecture.”
Decision of the World Heritage Committee CONF 003 XI.35
(iv) "The authenticity of a cultural property remains an essential criterion."
Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee recommends paying particular attention to the conservation of authenticity and to inaccurate reconstructions and the risk of over-interpretation, with regard to restoration and development works, including architectural restorations and of technical historical reconstructions (based on Case law on decisions on Nominations).[1]

2.2.4    Integrity

Paragraph 87

“All properties nominated for inscription on the World Heritage List shall satisfy the conditions of integrity.”

Paragraph 88

“Integrity is a measure of the wholeness and intactness of the natural and/or cultural heritage and its attributes. Examining the conditions of integrity, therefore requires assessing the extent to which the property:

a) includes all elements necessary to express its Outstanding Universal Value;

b) is of adequate size to ensure the complete representation of the features and processes which convey the property’s significance;

c) suffers from adverse effects of development and/or neglect.

This should be presented in a statement of integrity.”

Paragraph 89

“For properties nominated under criteria (i) to (vi), the physical fabric of the property and/or its significant features should be in good condition, and the impact of deterioration processes controlled. A significant proportion of the elements necessary to convey the totality of the value conveyed by the property should be included. Relationships and dynamic functions present in cultural landscapes, historic towns or other living properties essential to their distinctive character should also be maintained.”

Paragraph 90

“For all properties nominated under criteria (vii) - (x), bio-physical processes and landform features should be relatively intact. However, it is recognized that no area is totally pristine and that all natural areas are in a dynamic state, and to some extent involve contact with people. Human activities, including those of traditional societies and local communities, often occur in natural areas. These activities may be consistent with the Outstanding Universal Value of the area where they are ecologically sustainable.”

Paragraph 91

“In addition, for properties nominated under criteria (vii) to (x), a corresponding condition of integrity has been defined for each criterion.”

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee recommends providing a more detailed inventory of the attributes and elements of the property (based on Case law on decisions on Nominations).[2]

2.2.5    Protection and management

a) General

Paragraph 96

“Protection and management of World Heritage properties should ensure that their Outstanding Universal Value, including the conditions of integrity and/or authenticity at the time of inscription, are sustained or enhanced over time. A regular review of the general state of conservation of properties, and thus also their Outstanding Universal Value, shall be done within a framework of monitoring processes for World Heritage properties, as specified within the Operational Guidelines.”

Paragraph 97

“All properties inscribed on the World Heritage List must have adequate long-term legislative, regulatory, institutional and/or traditional protection and management to ensure their safeguarding. This protection should include adequately delineated boundaries. Similarly States Parties should demonstrate adequate protection at the national, regional, municipal, and/or traditional level for the nominated property. They should append appropriate texts to the nomination with a clear explanation of the way this protection operates to protect the property.”

b) Legislative, regulatory and contractual measures for protection

Paragraph 98

“Legislative and regulatory measures at national and local levels should assure the protection of the property from social, economic and other pressures or changes that might negatively impact the Outstanding Universal Value, including the integrity and/or authenticity of the property. States Parties should also assure the full and effective implementation of such measures.”

c) Management systems

Paragraph 108

“Each nominated property should have an appropriate management plan or other documented management system which must specify how the Outstanding Universal Value of a property should be preserved, preferably through participatory means.”

Paragraph 109

“The purpose of a management system is to ensure the effective protection of the nominated property for present and future generations.”

Paragraph 110

“An effective management system depends on the type, characteristics and needs of the nominated property and its cultural and natural context. Management systems may vary according to different cultural perspectives, the resources available and other factors. They may incorporate traditional practices, existing urban or regional planning instruments, and other planning control mechanisms, both formal and informal. Impact assessments for proposed interventions are essential for all World Heritage properties.”

Paragraph 111

“In recognizing the diversity mentioned above, common elements of an effective management system could include:

a) a thorough shared understanding of the property by all stakeholders, including the use of participatory planning and stakeholder consultation process;

b) a cycle of planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and feedback;

c) an assessment of the vulnerabilities of the property to social, economic, and other pressures and changes, as well as the monitoring of the impacts of trends and proposed interventions;

d) the development of mechanisms for the involvement and coordination of the various activities between different partners and stakeholders;

e) the allocation of necessary resources;

f) capacity-building; and

g) an accountable, transparent description of how the management system functions.”

Paragraph 112

“Effective management involves a cycle of short, medium and long-term actions to protect, conserve and present the nominated property. An integrated approach to planning and management is essential to guide the evolution of properties over time and to ensure maintenance of all aspects of their Outstanding Universal Value. This approach goes beyond the property to include any buffer zone(s), as well as the broader setting. The broader setting, may relate to the property’s topography, natural and built environment, and other elements such as infrastructure, land use patterns, spatial organization, and visual relationships. It may also include related social and cultural practices, economic processes and other intangible dimensions of heritage such as perceptions and associations. Management of the broader setting is related to its role in supporting the Outstanding Universal Value.”

Paragraph 117

“States Parties are responsible for implementing effective management activities for a World Heritage property. State Parties should do so in close collaboration with property managers, the agency with management authority and other partners, and stakeholders in property management.”

Paragraph 118

“The Committee recommends that States Parties include risk preparedness as an element in their World Heritage site management plans and training strategies.”

d) Sustainable use

Paragraph 119

“World Heritage properties may support a variety of ongoing and proposed uses that are ecologically and culturally sustainable and which may contribute to the quality of life of communities concerned. The State Party and its partners must ensure that such sustainable use or any other change does not impact adversely on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. For some properties, human use would not be appropriate. Legislations, policies and strategies affecting World Heritage properties should ensure the protection of the Outstanding Universal Value, support the wider conservation of natural and cultural heritage, and promote and encourage the active participation of the communities and stakeholders concerned with the property as necessary conditions to its sustainable protection, conservation, management and presentation.”

e) Impact assessment

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 35 COM 12E

15.c) "[The World Heritage Committee encourages States Parties to] (…) be proactive in relation to development and conservation of World Heritage properties by conducting a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) at the time of nomination to anticipate the impact of any potential development on the Outstanding Universal Value."

2.2.6    Boundaries and buffer zones

a) Boundaries

Paragraph 99

“The delineation of boundaries is an essential requirement in the establishment of effective protection of nominated properties. Boundaries should be drawn to incorporate all the attributes that convey the Outstanding Universal Value and to ensure the integrity and/or authenticity of the property.”

Paragraph 100

“For properties nominated under criteria (i) - (vi), boundaries should be drawn to include all those areas and attributes which are a direct tangible expression of the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, as well as those areas which in the light of future research possibilities offer potential to contribute to and enhance such understanding.”

Paragraph 101

“For properties nominated under criteria (vii) - (x), boundaries should reflect the spatial requirements of habitats, species, processes or phenomena that provide the basis for their inscription on the World Heritage List. The boundaries should include sufficient areas immediately adjacent to the area of Outstanding Universal Value in order to protect the property's heritage values from direct effect of human encroachments and impacts of resource use outside of the nominated area.”

Paragraph 102

“The boundaries of the nominated property may coincide with one or more existing or proposed protected areas, such as national parks or nature reserves, biosphere reserves or protected cultural or historic districts or other areas and territories. While such established areas for protection may contain several management zones, only some of those zones may satisfy requirements for inscription.”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 35 COM 8B.46
7. "[The World Heritage Committee] considers that modifications to boundaries of World Heritage properties that are related to mining activities should be considered through the procedure for significant modifications of boundaries, in accordance with paragraph 165 of the Operational Guidelines, given the potential impact of such projects on Outstanding Universal Value."

b) Buffer Zones

Paragraph 103

“Wherever necessary for the proper protection of the property, an adequate buffer zone should be provided.”

Paragraph 104

“For the purposes of effective protection of the nominated property, a buffer zone is an area surrounding the nominated property which has complementary legal and/or customary restrictions placed on its use and development to give an added layer of protection to the property. This should include the immediate setting of the nominated property, important views and other areas or attributes that are functionally important as a support to the property and its protection. The area constituting the buffer zone should be determined in each case through appropriate mechanisms. Details on the size, characteristics and authorized uses of a buffer zone, as well as a map indicating the precise boundaries of the property and its buffer zone, should be provided in the nomination.”

Paragraph 105

“A clear explanation of how the buffer zone protects the property should also be provided.”

Paragraph 106

“Where no buffer zone is proposed, the nomination should include a statement as to why a buffer zone is not required.”

Paragraph 107

“Although buffer zones are not part of the nominated property, any modifications to or creation of buffer zones subsequent to inscription of a property on the World Heritage List should be approved by the World Heritage Committee using the procedure for a minor boundary modification (see paragraph 164 and Annex 11). The creation of buffer zones subsequent to inscription is normally considered to be a minor boundary modification.”

c) Minor modifications to the boundaries

Paragraph 163

“A minor modification is one which has not a significant impact on the extent of the property nor affects its Outstanding Universal Value.”

Paragraph 164

“If a State Party wishes to request a minor modification to the boundaries of a property already on the World Heritage List, it must be prepared in compliance with the format of Annex 11 and must be received by 1 February by the Committee through the Secretariat, which will seek the evaluation of the relevant Advisory Bodies on whether this can be considered a minor modification or not. The Secretariat shall then submit the Advisory Bodies’ evaluation to the World Heritage Committee. The Committee may approve such a modification, or it may consider that the modification to the boundary is sufficiently significant as to constitute a significant boundary modification of the property, in which case the procedure for new nominations will apply.”

d) Significant modifications to the boundaries

Paragraph 165

“If a State Party wishes to significantly modify the boundary of a property already on the World Heritage List, the State Party shall submit this proposal as if it were a new nomination (including the requirement to be previously included on the Tentative List – see paragraph 63 and 65). This re-nomination shall be presented by 1 February and will be evaluated in the full year and a half cycle of evaluation according to the procedures and timetable outlined in paragraph 168. This provision applies to extensions, as well as reductions.”

2.3    Global Strategy for a Representative, Balanced and Credible World Heritage List

Recommendation of the Working Group on the Representativity of the World Heritage List, DECISION CONF 204 VI (Cairns, 2000)

“The tentative list of cultural and natural sites should be used in the future as a planning tool with a view to reducing any imbalances in the World Heritage List”.

“Regional Plans of Action should be updated and developed within the framework of the Global Strategy”.

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 54

“The Committee seeks to establish a representative, balanced and credible World Heritage List in conformity with the four Strategic Objectives adopted by the Committee at its 26th session (Budapest, 2002).”

Paragraph 55

“The Global Strategy for a Representative, Balanced and Credible World Heritage List is designed to identify and fill the major gaps in the World Heritage List. It does this by encouraging more countries to become States Parties to the Convention and to develop Tentative Lists (…) and nominations of properties for inscription on the World Heritage List.”

Paragraph 57

“All efforts should be made to maintain a reasonable balance between cultural and natural heritage on the World Heritage List.”

Paragraph 59

“To promote the establishment of a representative, balanced and credible World Heritage List, States Parties are requested to consider whether their heritage is already well represented on the List and if so to slow down their rate of submission of further nominations (…)”.

Paragraph 71

“Tentative Lists should be drawn selectively and on the basis of evidence that supports potential Outstanding Universal Value. States Parties are encouraged to consult the analyses of both the World Heritage List and Tentative Lists prepared at the request of the Committee by ICOMOS and IUCN to identify the gaps in the World Heritage List. These analyses could enable States Parties to compare themes, regions, geo-cultural groupings and bio-geographic provinces for prospective World Heritage properties (…).”

Paragraph 72

“In addition, States Parties are encouraged to consult the specific thematic studies carried out by the Advisory Bodies.”

Paragraph 74

“To implement the Global Strategy, cooperative efforts in capacity-building and training may be necessary to assist States Parties to acquire and/or consolidate their expertise in the preparation, updating and harmonisation of their Tentative List and the preparation of nominations.”

12th General Assembly of States Parties

THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

1. “Agrees to give its full support for the implementation of the Convention, in the States Parties whose heritage is still under-represented on the List,

2. Recognizes the interest of all the States Parties and the advisory bodies in preserving the authority of the 1972 Convention, by improving, through appropriate means, the representativity of the World Heritage List which must reflect the diversity of all cultures and ecosystems of all regions,

3. Endorses the objectives of the Global Strategy while reaffirming the sovereign rights of the States Parties and the sovereign role of the General Assembly”.

16th General Assembly of States Parties

2. "The Global Strategy proposed specifically to ‘move away from a purely architectural view of the cultural heritage of humanity towards one which was much more anthropological, multi-functional and universal".

4. "(…) those aspects of the Global Strategy directly relevant to improving those three characteristics attributed to the List. As such, it is important to recall that:

Decision of the World Heritage Committee CONF 203 IX.1

IX.22 "(…)

2) The Committee stressed the urgent need to establish a representative World Heritage List and considered it imperative to ensure more participation of those States Parties whose heritage is currently underrepresented on the World Heritage List. The Committee requested the Centre and the advisory bodies to actively consult with these States Parties to encourage and support their active participation in the implementation of the Global Strategy for a credible and representative World Heritage List through the concrete regional actions described in the Global Strategy Action Plan adopted by the Committee at its twenty-second session".
Decision of the World Heritage Committee CONF 203 X

X.2 "(…) The Committee, in the light of earlier discussions:

- invites States Parties to nominate types of sites presently under-represented on the World Heritage List;
- invites States Parties attending the World Heritage Committee and its Bureau to be represented by both cultural and natural heritage specialists;
- requests States Parties to communicate regularly to the Centre updated addresses of the national institutions primarily responsible for cultural and natural heritage;
- asks the World Heritage Centre to undertake efforts to strengthen the links to natural heritage institutions in States Parties to the Convention;
- requests the Centre to work on an overall global strategy for natural heritage in close cooperation with IUCN and ICOMOS."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 27 COM 14
1. "(…) [The World Heritage Committee decides to focus on] improving the geographic distribution of properties on the World Heritage List (…)."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 35 COM 12B
15. "[The World Heritage Committee] (…) recommends that States Parties already well represented on the World Heritage List should exercise restraint in bringing forward new nominations in order to achieve a better balance of the List."

2.4    Upstream Process

Paragraph 122

“Before States Parties begin to prepare a nomination of a property for inscription on the World Heritage List, they should become familiar with the nomination cycle, described in Paragraph 168. It is desirable to carry out initial preparatory work to establish that a property has the potential to justify Outstanding Universal Value, including integrity or authenticity, before the development of a full nomination dossier which could be expensive and time-consuming. Such preparatory work might include collection of available information on the property, thematic studies, scoping studies of the potential for demonstrating Outstanding Universal Value, including integrity or authenticity, or an initial comparative study of the property in its wider global or regional context, including an analysis in the context of the Gap Studies produced by the Advisory Bodies. This first phase of work will help to establish the feasibility of a possible nomination and avoid the use of resources on preparing nominations that may be unlikely to succeed. States Parties are encouraged to seek upstream advice from the relevant Advisory Body(ies) for this first phase as well as to contact the World Heritage Centre at the earliest opportunity in considering nominations to seek information and guidance.”

Paragraph 122 [footnote]

“Upstream Processes: In relation to the nomination of sites for inscription on the World Heritage List, “Upstream processes” include advice, consultation and analysis that occur prior to the submission of a nomination and are aimed at reducing the number of nominations that experience significant problems during the evaluation process. The basic principle of the upstream processes is to enable the Advisory Bodies and the Secretariat to provide support directly to States Parties, throughout the whole process leading up to a possible World Heritage nomination. For the upstream support to be effective, it should ideally be undertaken from the earliest stage in the nomination process, at the moment of the preparation or revision of the States Parties’ Tentative Lists.”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 9A
4. "[The World Heritage Committee] (…) recalls that, in order to be effective, the upstream support should ideally take place at an early stage, preferably at the moment of the preparation or revision of the States Parties’ Tentative Lists."

2.5    Tentative Lists

World Heritage Convention

Article 11

1. "Every State Party to this Convention shall, in so far as possible, submit to the World Heritage Committee an inventory of property forming part of the cultural and natural heritage, situated in its territory and suitable for inclusion in the list provided for in paragraph 2 of this Article. This inventory, which shall not be considered exhaustive, shall include documentation about the location of the property in question and its significance."

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 62

“A Tentative List is an inventory of those properties situated on its territory which each State Party considers suitable for nomination to the World Heritage List. States Parties should therefore include, in their Tentative Lists, details of those properties which they consider to be of potential Outstanding Universal Value and which they intend to nominate during the following years.”

Paragraph 63

“Nominations to the World Heritage List are not considered unless the nominated property has already been included on the State Party's Tentative List.”

Paragraph 64

“States Parties are encouraged to prepare their Tentative Lists with the participation of a wide variety of stakeholders, including site managers, local and regional governments, local communities, NGOs and other interested parties and partners.”

Paragraph 65

“States Parties shall submit Tentative Lists to the Secretariat, at least one year prior to the submission of any nomination. States Parties are encouraged to re-examine and re-submit their Tentative List at least every ten years.”

Paragraph 68

“(…) The sole responsibility for the content of each Tentative List lies with the State Party concerned. The publication of the Tentative Lists does not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever of the World Heritage Committee or of the World Heritage Centre or of the Secretariat of UNESCO concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its boundaries.”

Paragraph 70

“Tentative Lists are a useful and important planning tool for States Parties, the World Heritage Committee, the Secretariat, and the Advisory Bodies, as they provide an indication of future nominations.”

Paragraph 73

“States Parties are encouraged to harmonize their Tentative Lists at regional and thematic levels. Harmonization of Tentative Lists is the process whereby States Parties, with the assistance of the Advisory Bodies, collectively assess their respective Tentative List to review gaps and identify common themes. The outcome of harmonization can result in improved Tentative Lists, new nominations from States Parties and co-operation amongst groups of States Parties in the preparation of nominations.”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 8A

2. "Stressing the importance of the process of revision and updating of Tentative Lists, as a tool for regional harmonisation of the World Heritage List and long-term planning of its development,

3. [The World Heritage Committee] encourages States Parties to seek as early as possible upstream advice from the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies during the development or revision of their Tentative Lists as appropriate."

2.6    Comparative studies

Paragraph 132

3. Justification for Inscription

“[For a nomination to be considered as “complete”, the following requirements (see format in Annex 5) are to be met:] (…) In section 3.2, a comparative analysis of the property in relation to similar properties, whether or not on the World Heritage List, both at the national and international levels, shall be provided. The comparative analysis shall explain the importance of the nominated property in its national and international context.”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee CONF 003 XI.35
(ii) "In its justification of the outstanding universal value of the property nominated, each State should, whenever possible, undertake a sufficiently wide comparison."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 7 EXT.COM 4A

III. COMPARATIVE ANALYSES

7. "[The World Heritage Committee] decides that comparative analyses by States Parties as part of the nomination dossier shall be undertaken in relation to similar properties, whether or not on the World Heritage List, both at the national and international levels."

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee recommends undertaking a deep comparative analysis in order to demonstrate the Outstanding Universal Value of the property by fully assessing the relative values of the nominated property against other sites (based on Case law on decisions on Nominations).[3]

2.7    Types of World Heritage properties

2.7.1    Cultural, Natural and Mixed Properties

Paragraph 45

"Cultural and natural heritage are defined in Articles 1 and 2 of the World Heritage Convention.

Article 1

For the purposes of this Convention, the following shall be considered as "cultural heritage";

- monuments: architectural works, works of monumental sculpture and painting, elements or structures of an archaeological nature, inscriptions, cave dwellings and combinations of features, which are of Outstanding Universal Value from the point of view of history, art or science;

- groups of buildings: groups of separate or connected buildings which, because of their architecture, their homogeneity or their place in the landscape, are of Outstanding Universal Value from the point of view of history, art or science;

- sites: works of man or the combined works of nature and of man, and areas including archaeological sites which are of Outstanding Universal Value from the historical, aesthetic, ethnological or anthropological points of view.

Article 2

For the purposes of this Convention, the following shall be considered as "natural heritage":

- natural features consisting of physical and biological formations or groups of such formations, which are of Outstanding Universal Value from the aesthetic or scientific point of view;

geological and physiographical formations and precisely delineated areas which constitute the habitat of threatened species of animals and plants of Outstanding Universal Value from the point of view of science or conservation;

- natural sites or precisely delineated natural areas of Outstanding Universal Value from the point of view of science, conservation or natural beauty."

Paragraph 46

“Properties shall be considered as "mixed cultural and natural heritage" if they satisfy a part or the whole of the definitions of both cultural and natural heritage laid out in Articles 1 and 2 of the Convention.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 9B
4. "[The World Heritage Committee] reiterates that due to the complexity of mixed site nominations and their evaluation, States Parties should ideally seek prior advice from IUCN and ICOMOS, if possible at least two years before a potential nomination is submitted, in compliance with Paragraph 122 of the Operational Guidelines."

2.7.2    Transboundary and transnational properties

Paragraph 134

“A nominated property may occur:

a) on the territory of a single State Party, or

b) on the territory of all concerned States Parties having adjacent borders (transboundary property).”

Paragraph 135

“Wherever possible, transboundary nominations should be prepared and submitted by States Parties jointly in conformity with Article 11.3 of the Convention. It is highly recommended that the States Parties concerned establish a joint management committee or similar body to oversee the management of the whole of a transboundary property.”

Paragraph 136

“Extensions to an existing World Heritage property located in one State Party may be proposed to become transboundary properties.”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 7 EXT.COM 4A

 “II. TRANSBOUNDARY AND TRANSNATIONAL NOMINATIONS

6) [The World Heritage Committee] decides to consider as:

(a) transboundary nomination, only a property jointly nominated as such, in conformity with Article 11.3 of the Convention, by all concerned States Parties having adjacent borders;

(b) transnational nomination, a serial nomination of properties located in the territory of different States Parties, which need not be contiguous and which are nominated with the consent of all States Parties concerned”.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 29 COM 18A

3. "[The World Heritage Committee] aware of the need to specify the submission modalities for the nomination of transboundary or transnational serial properties on the World Heritage List,

4. (…):

a) The States Parties co-authors of a transboundary or transnational serial nomination can choose, amongst themselves and with a common understanding, the State Party which will be bearing this nomination; and

b) This nomination can be registered exclusively within the ceiling of the bearing State Party."

2.7.3    Serial properties

Paragraph 137

“Serial properties will include two or more component parts related by clearly defined links:

a) Component parts should reflect cultural, social or functional links over time that provide, where relevant, landscape, ecological, evolutionary or habitat connectivity.

b) Each component part should contribute to the Outstanding Universal Value of the property as a whole in a substantial, scientific, readily defined and discernible way, and may include, inter alia, intangible attributes. The resulting Outstanding Universal Value should be easily understood and communicated.

c) Consistently, and in order to avoid an excessive fragmentation of component parts, the process of nomination of the property, including the selection of the component parts, should take fully into account the overall manageability and coherence of the property (see paragraph 114).

and provided it is the series as a whole – and not necessarily the individual parts of it – which are of Outstanding Universal Value.”

Paragraph 138

“A serial nominated property may occur:

a) on the territory of a single State Party (serial national property); or

b) within the territory of different States Parties, which need not be contiguous and is nominated with the consent of all States Parties concerned (serial transnational property).”

Paragraph 139

“Serial nominations, whether from one State Party or multiple States, may be submitted for evaluation over several nomination cycles, provided that the first property nominated is of Outstanding Universal Value in its own right. States Parties planning serial nominations phased over several nomination cycles are encouraged to inform the Committee of their intention in order to ensure better planning.”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee CONF 003 XI.35

35. (i) “States Parties may propose in one single nomination several individual cultural properties, which may be in different geographical locations but which should:

- be linked because they belong to the same historic-cultural group, or

- be the subject of a single safeguarding project, or

- belong to the same type of property characteristic of the zone

(…)

Each State Party submits only the cultural properties situated on its territory (even if these properties belong to an ensemble which goes beyond its borders) but it may come to an agreement with another State Party in order to make a joint submission”.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee CONF 016 VI.18-20

19. "(...) 

(e) States Parties may propose in a single nomination a series of cultural properties in different geographical locations, provided that they are related because they belong : (i) to the same historico-cultural group or (ii) to the same type of property which is characteristic of the geographical zone and provided that it is the series as such and not its components taken individually, which is of outstanding universal value."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 8B.50

2. "[The World Heritage Committee notes] that some large complex serial transnational nominations may benefit from an agreed nomination strategy before their official submission, (…);

5. [The World Heritage Committee] emphasizes that, if and when, it takes note of a nomination strategy, this is not prejudicial and does not imply that the complex serial transnational nominations proposed would necessarily lead to an inscription on the World Heritage List."

2.7.4    Cultural Landscapes

a) General

Paragraph 47

“Cultural landscapes are cultural properties and represent the "combined works of nature and of man" designated in Article 1 of the Convention. They are illustrative of the evolution of human society and settlement over time, under the influence of the physical constraints and/or opportunities presented by their natural environment and of successive social, economic and cultural forces, both external and internal.”

Annex 3

7. “[Cultural Landscapes] … should be selected on the basis both of their Outstanding Universal Value and of their representativity in terms of a clearly defined geo‑cultural region and also for their capacity to illustrate the essential and distinct cultural elements of such regions”.

9. “Cultural landscapes often reflect specific techniques of sustainable land‑use, considering the characteristics and limits of the natural environment they are established in, and a specific spiritual relation to nature. Protection of cultural landscapes can contribute to modern techniques of sustainable land‑use and can maintain or enhance natural values in the landscape. The continued existence of traditional forms of land‑use supports biological diversity in many regions of the world”.

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage committee recommends addressing landscape surveys and the historic evolution of the landscape, as a holistic reflection of history and cultural traditions and of the interaction between culture and nature, including the way the landscape has been shaped by human practices and natural resources (based on Case law on decisions on Nominations).[4]

b) Historic Urban Landscapes

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 29 COM 5D

"The World Heritage Committee, (…)

4. Encourages States Parties to integrate the notion of historic urban landscape in nomination proposals and in the elaboration of management plans of properties nominated for inscription on the World Heritage List;

5. Also encourages States Parties to integrate the principles expressed in the Vienna Memorandum into their heritage conservation policies;

6. Requests the Advisory Bodies and the World Heritage Centre to take into account the conservation of the historic urban landscape when reviewing any potential impact on the integrity of an existing World Heritage property, and during the nomination evaluation process of new sites."


3    Policies Regarding CONSERVATION of World Heritage Properties

Conservation of cultural and natural heritage is at the core of the Convention. Conservation includes effective and active measures that can be taken by States Parties to ensure the identification, protection, presentation and transmission of heritage.

There is no single definition of conservation in relation to both cultural and natural heritage. However, with regards to cultural heritage ‘all operations designed to understand a property, know its history and meaning, ensure its material safeguard, and, if required, its restoration and enhancement’ could be part of its conservation (Nara Document on Authenticity). Conservation of natural heritage refers to the protection, care, management and maintenance of ecosystems, habitats, wildlife species and populations, within or outside of their natural environments, in order to safeguard the natural conditions for their long-term permanence (IUCN).

The Conservation theme includes policies related to protection, management, monitoring, impact assessments, factors affecting the properties, tourism and sustainable development.


3.1    Protection, conservation and management of World Heritage properties

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention

9. “All dimensions of sustainable development should apply to natural, cultural and mixed properties in their diversity. These dimensions are interdependent and mutually reinforcing, with none having predominance over another and each being equally necessary. States Parties should therefore review and reinforce governance frameworks within management systems of World Heritage properties in order to achieve the appropriate balance, integration and harmonization between the protection of OUV and the pursuit of sustainable development objectives. This will include the full respect and participation of all stakeholders and rights holders, including indigenous peoples and local communities, the setting up of effective inter-institutional coordination mechanisms and provisions for the systematic assessment of environmental, social, and economic impacts of all proposed developments, as well as effective monitoring through continuity in data collection against agreed indicators”.

15. “States Parties should ensure that biological and cultural diversity, as well as ecosystem services and benefits for people that contribute to environmental sustainability, are protected and enhanced within World Heritage properties, their buffer zones and their wider settings. To this end, States Parties should:

i. Integrate consideration for biological and cultural diversity as well as ecosystem services and benefits within the conservation and management of all World Heritage properties, including mixed and cultural ones,

ii. Avoid, and if not possible mitigate, all negative impacts on the environment and cultural diversity when conserving and managing World Heritage properties and their wider settings. This can be achieved by promoting environmental, social and cultural impact assessment tools when undertaking planning in sectors such as urban development, transport, infrastructure, mining and waste management - as well as by applying sustainable consumption and production patterns and promoting the use of renewable energy sources”.

25. “The management and conservation of World Heritage properties should contribute to fostering inclusive local economic development and enhancing livelihoods, compatibly with the protection of their OUV”.

The UNESCO World Heritage Centre's Natural Heritage Strategy

C. 4) "Apply the Ecosystem Approach

(…)

18. a) Promote integration of the ecosystem approach principles into all stages of planning and management of World Heritage sites."

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 86

“In relation to authenticity, the reconstruction of archaeological remains or historic buildings or districts is justifiable only in exceptional circumstances. Reconstruction is acceptable only on the basis of complete and detailed documentation and to no extent on conjecture.”

Paragraph 96

“Protection and management of World Heritage properties should ensure that their Outstanding Universal Value, including the conditions of integrity and/or authenticity at the time of inscription, are sustained or enhanced over time. A regular review of the general state of conservation of properties, and thus also their Outstanding Universal Value, shall be done within a framework of monitoring processes for World Heritage properties, as specified within the Operational Guidelines.”

Paragraph 97

“All properties inscribed on the World Heritage List must have adequate long-term legislative, regulatory, institutional and/or traditional protection and management to ensure their safeguarding. This protection should include adequately delineated boundaries. Similarly States Parties should demonstrate adequate protection at the national, regional, municipal, and/or traditional level for the nominated property. They should append appropriate texts to the nomination with a clear explanation of the way this protection operates to protect the property.”

Paragraph 98

“Legislative and regulatory measures at national and local levels should assure the protection of the property from social, economic and other pressures or changes that might negatively impact the Outstanding Universal Value, including the integrity and/or authenticity of the property. States Parties should also assure the full and effective implementation of such measures.”

Paragraph 108

“Each nominated property should have an appropriate management plan or other documented management system which must specify how the Outstanding Universal Value of a property should be preserved, preferably through participatory means.”

Paragraph 110

“An effective management system depends on the type, characteristics and needs of the nominated property and its cultural and natural context. Management systems may vary according to different cultural perspectives, the resources available and other factors. They may incorporate traditional practices, existing urban or regional planning instruments, and other planning control mechanisms, both formal and informal. Impact assessments for proposed interventions are essential for all World Heritage properties.”

Paragraph 112

“Effective management involves a cycle of short, medium and long-term actions to protect, conserve and present the nominated property. An integrated approach to planning and management is essential to guide the evolution of properties over time and to ensure maintenance of all aspects of their Outstanding Universal Value. This approach goes beyond the property to include any buffer zone(s), as well as the broader setting. The broader setting, may relate to the property’s topography, natural and built environment, and other elements such as infrastructure, land use patterns, spatial organization, and visual relationships. It may also include related social and cultural practices, economic processes and other intangible dimensions of heritage such as perceptions and associations. Management of the broader setting is related to its role in supporting the Outstanding Universal Value.”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 39 COM 7
8. "[The World Heritage Committee] takes note of the increasing number of State of Conservation reports due to inadequate management systems or plans and urges States Parties to ensure that management systems and plans are in place at the time of inscription."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 40 COM 7
"Integrated management, Decision making, Governance

23. [The World Heritage Committee,] noting with concern that the lack of an integrated management approach is reported to cause challenges to the coordination of management and decision making processes of properties where different authorities are involved, in particular in the cases of mixed, serial, and transboundary properties, urges States Parties to establish appropriate mechanisms in order to facilitate a coordinated approach to the management of all properties, in line with the requirements of the Operational Guidelines as laid out in Paragraphs 112, 114, and 135, and encourages States Parties with contiguous natural properties on either side of their international borders, which are not listed as transboundary properties, to establish appropriate mechanisms for cooperation between their respective management authorities and ministries;

24. Also encourages States Parties to promote recognition and awareness across all relevant national and regional agencies of the World Heritage status of the properties on their territory, and to develop mechanisms to ensure consideration of impacts on Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) in the decision making processes of relevant ministries, before permits are issued for developments that could negatively impact the OUV."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7
15. "[The World Heritage Committee] encourages (…) the reflection on reconstruction within World Heritage properties as a complex multi-disciplinary process, towards developing new guidance to reflect the multi-faceted challenges that reconstruction brings, its social and economic context, the short- and long-term needs of properties, and the idea of reconstruction as a process that should be undertaken within the framework of the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the properties."
Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

States Parties are responsible for elaborating a comprehensive and integrated site management plan and to secur[ing] the necessary resources for its full implementation (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[5]

The World Heritage Committee requests the States Parties to establish the Outstanding Universal Value of the property as a clearly defined and central element within the protection and management system for the property (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[6]

The World Heritage Committee recommends the States Parties to improve institutional coordination, including international coordination, between the different agents in charge of the management of transnational, transboundary and/or serial properties in order to avoid potential negative impacts on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property (based on Case law on decisions on Nominations).[7]

The World Heritage Committee recommends the States Parties to develop a long-term strategy for the sustainable financing of the property, and to ensure adequate human, material and financial resources to support the effective management (based on Case law on decisions on Nominations).[8]

3.2    Monitoring

3.2.1    General

The UNESCO World Heritage Centre's Natural Heritage Strategy

C. 4) "Apply the Ecosystem Approach

(…)

18. c) Consider landscape/seascape level issues when monitoring the state of conservation of World Heritage sites (…)."

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 96

“Protection and management of World Heritage properties should ensure that their Outstanding Universal Value, including the conditions of integrity and/or authenticity at the time of inscription, are sustained or enhanced over time. A regular review of the general state of conservation of properties, and thus also their Outstanding Universal Value, shall be done within a framework of monitoring processes for World Heritage properties, as specified within the Operational Guidelines.”

Paragraph 173

“The World Heritage Committee requests that reports of missions to review the state of conservation of the World Heritage properties include:

a) an indication of threats or significant improvement in the conservation of the property since the last report to the World Heritage Committee;

b) any follow-up to previous decisions of the World Heritage Committee on the state of conservation of the property;

c) information on any threat or damage to or loss of Outstanding Universal Value, integrity and/or authenticity for which the property was inscribed on the World Heritage List.”

Paragraph 181

“In addition, the threats and/or their detrimental impacts on the integrity of the property must be those which are amenable to correction by human action. In the case of cultural properties, both natural factors and human-made factors may be threatening, while in the case of natural properties, most threats will be human-made and only very rarely a natural factor (such as an epidemic disease) will threaten the integrity of the property. In some cases, the threats and/or their detrimental impacts on the integrity of the property may be corrected by administrative or legislative action, such as the cancelling of a major public works project or the improvement of legal status.”
Policy Document on the Impacts of Climate Change on World Heritage Properties

"States Parties and managers of individual World Heritage properties will consider undertaking site-level monitoring, mitigation and adaptation measures, where appropriate”.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 31 COM 5.2
5. "[The World Heritage Committee] (…) underlines that reinforced monitoring is a constant cooperative process with the State Party concerned, which will always be undertaken in full consultation and with its approval."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 7
54. "[The World Heritage Committee] encourages States Parties to make full use of such Earth Observation technologies for the early detection of activities potentially harmful to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of World Heritage properties, such as deforestation, mining, illegal fisheries, agricultural encroachment, etc. and to better understand trends and respond appropriately."
Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee recommends establishing key monitoring indicators to relate more directly to the Outstanding Universal Value to allow for judgment of changes in state of conservation, and adding specific indicators, periodicity and institutional responsibilities (based on Case law on decisions on Nominations).[9]

The World Heritage Committee encourages States Parties to monitor wildlife and populations, including key species, in order to assess the populations and trends (based on case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[10]

3.2.2    Periodic Reporting

Paragraph 202

“Periodic Reporting is important for more effective long term conservation of the properties inscribed, as well as to strengthen the credibility of the implementation of the Convention. It is also an important tool for assessing the implementation by States Parties and World Heritage properties of policies adopted by the World Heritage Committee and the General Assembly.”

3.2.3    Reactive Monitoring

Paragraph 169

“Reactive Monitoring is the reporting by the Secretariat, other sectors of UNESCO and the Advisory Bodies to the Committee on the state of conservation of specific World Heritage properties that are under threat. To this end, the States Parties shall submit specific reports and impact studies each time exceptional circumstances occur or work is undertaken which may have an impact on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property or its state of conservation. Reactive Monitoring is also foreseen in reference to properties inscribed, or to be inscribed, on the List of World Heritage in Danger (…). Reactive Monitoring is also foreseen in the procedures for the eventual deletion of properties from the World Heritage List (…)”.

Paragraph 170

“When adopting the process of Reactive Monitoring, the Committee was particularly concerned that all possible measures should be taken to prevent the deletion of any property from the List and was ready to offer technical co-operation as far as possible to States Parties in this connection.”

3.2.4    List of World Heritage in Danger

Paragraph 9

“When a property inscribed on the World Heritage List is threatened by serious and specific dangers, the Committee considers placing it on the List of World Heritage in Danger. When the Outstanding Universal Value of the property which justified its inscription on the World Heritage List is destroyed, the Committee considers deleting the property from the World Heritage List.”

Paragraph 182

“The Committee may wish to bear in mind the following supplementary factors when considering the inclusion of a cultural or natural property in the List of World Heritage in Danger:

a) Decisions which affect World Heritage properties are taken by Governments after balancing all factors. The advice of the World Heritage Committee can often be decisive if it can be given before the property becomes threatened.

b) Particularly in the case of ascertained danger, the physical or cultural deteriorations to which a property has been subjected should be judged according to the intensity of its effects and analyzed case by case.

c) Above all in the case of potential danger to a property, one should consider that:

i) the threat should be appraised according to the normal evolution of the social and economic framework in which the property is situated;

ii) it is often impossible to assess certain threats such as the threat of armed conflict as to their effect on cultural or natural properties;

iii) some threats are not imminent in nature, but can only be anticipated, such as demographic growth.

d) Finally, in its appraisal the Committee should take into account any cause of unknown or unexpected origin which endangers a cultural or natural property.”

Paragraph 183

“When considering the inscription of a property on the List of World Heritage in Danger, the Committee shall develop, and adopt, as far as possible, in consultation with the State Party concerned, a Desired state of conservation for the removal of the property from the List of World Heritage in Danger, and a programme for corrective measures.”[1]


[1]           In relation to the paragraph 183 of the Operational Guidelines, there are several decisions from different properties related to the desired state of conservation. See for example 31 COM 7A.16, 31 COM 7A.21, 36 COM 7A.34, 36 COM 7B.102, 38 COM 7A.23, 39 COM 7A.13, 39 COM 7A.18, 41 COM 7A.19, 41 COM 7A.23.

3.2.5    Deletion of a World Heritage property from the List

Paragraph 192

“The Committee adopted the following procedure for the deletion of properties from the World Heritage List in cases:

a) where the property has deteriorated to the extent that it has lost those characteristics which determined its inclusion in the World Heritage List; and

b) where the intrinsic qualities of a World Heritage site were already threatened at the time of its nomination by human action and where the necessary corrective measures as outlined by the State Party at the time, have not been taken within the time proposed (…)”.

3.3    Impact assessments

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention

9. "(…) appropriate balance, integration and harmonization between the protection of OUV and the pursuit of sustainable development objectives will include (…) provisions for the systematic assessment of environmental, social, and economic impacts of all proposed developments, as well as effective monitoring through continuity in data collection against agreed indicators."

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 110

“An effective management system depends on the type, characteristics and needs of the nominated property and its cultural and natural context. Management systems may vary according to different cultural perspectives, the resources available and other factors. They may incorporate traditional practices, existing urban or regional planning instruments, and other planning control mechanisms, both formal and informal. Impact assessments for proposed interventions are essential for all World Heritage properties.”

Paragraph 172

“The World Heritage Committee invites the States Parties to the Convention to inform the Committee, through the Secretariat, of their intention to undertake or to authorize in an area protected under the Convention major restorations or new constructions which may affect the Outstanding Universal Value of the property.  Notice should be given as soon as possible (…) and before making any decisions that would be difficult to reverse, so that the Committee may assist in seeking appropriate solutions to ensure that the Outstanding Universal Value of the property is fully preserved.”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 35 COM 12E

15.c) "[The World Heritage Committee encourages States Parties to] (…) be proactive in relation to development and conservation of World Heritage properties by conducting a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) at the time of nomination to anticipate the impact of any potential development on the Outstanding Universal Value."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 39 COM 7
11. "[The World Heritage Committee] taking note of the benefits to States Parties of systematically utilizing Heritage Impact Assessments (HIAs) and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) in the review of development projects, encourages States Parties to integrate the EIA/HIA processes into legislation, planning mechanisms and management plans, and reiterates its recommendation to States Parties to use these tools in assessing projects, including assessment of cumulative impacts, as early as possible and before any final decision is taken, and, taking into account the need for capacity-building in this regard, requests the States Parties to contribute financially and technically towards the development of further guidance regarding EIA/HIA implementation, by the Advisory Bodies and the World Heritage Centre, based on case studies and field experience."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 7
37. "[The World Heritage Committee] stresses the necessity for HIAs and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) to be proportionate to the scope and scale of projects, with simpler assessments being undertaken for smaller projects and Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) for very large projects, and the necessity for assessments to be undertaken in a timely fashion and submitted to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies (…)."
Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee requests the States Parties to provide, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, detailed information on the planning and design of proposed and on-going projects, which may impact on the visual integrity of the World Heritage property or its immediate and wider setting, and undertake a visual impact study, for review by the Advisory Bodies, prior to approval and implementation and before making any decisions that would be difficult to reverse (Based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[11]

The World Heritage Committee requests the States Parties to ensure that development is not permitted if it would impact individually or cumulatively on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[12]

3.4    Disaster risks management

Strategy for Reducing Risks from Disasters at World Heritage Properties
7. “(…)

a) Cultural and natural heritage, with their related technologies, practices, skills, knowledge systems and ecosystem’s goods and services can play an important positive role in reducing risks from disasters at all phases of the process (readiness, response and recovery), and hence in contributing to sustainable development in general”.

b) The key to an effective reduction of risks from disasters is advance planning and the building of a culture of prevention”.

c) In developing plans for reducing risks at World Heritage properties it is essential to give adequate consideration to cultural diversity, age, vulnerable groups and gender perspective”.

d) Property occupants and users, and concerned communities in general, should be always involved in planning for disaster risk reduction”.

e) The protection of the Outstanding Universal Value and the integrity and authenticity of World Heritage properties from disasters implies consideration for the associated intangible aspects and movable items that contribute directly to its heritage significance.

(…).
9. The five objectives [of the Strategy for Reducing Risks from Disaster at World Heritage Properties] are the following:

a) Strengthen support within relevant global, regional, national and local institutions for reducing risks at World Heritage properties;

b) Use knowledge, innovation and education to build a culture of disaster prevention at World Heritage properties;

c) Identify, assess and monitor disaster risks at World Heritage properties;

d) Reduce underlying risk factors at World Heritage properties;

e) Strengthen disaster risk preparedness at World Heritage properties for effective response at all levels".

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention
16. “In the face of increasing disaster risks and the impact of climate change, States Parties should recognise that World Heritage represents both an asset to be protected and a resource to strengthen the ability of communities and their properties to resist, absorb, and recover from the effects of a hazard. In line with disaster risks and climate change multilateral agreements, States Parties should:

i. Recognise and promote – within conservation and management strategies – the inherent potential of World Heritage properties for reducing disaster risks and adapting to climate change, through associated ecosystem services, traditional knowledge and practices and strengthened social cohesion.

ii. Reduce the vulnerability of World Heritage properties and their settings as well as promote the social and economic resilience of local and associated communities to disaster and climate change through structural and non-structural measures, including public awareness-raising, training and education. Structural measures, in particular, should not adversely affect the OUV of World Heritage properties;

iii. Enhance preparedness for effective response and ‘building-back-better’ in post-disaster recovery strategies within management systems and conservation practice for World Heritage properties”.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 36 COM 7C
5. "[The World Heritage Committee requests States Parties] to make every endeavour to take into consideration disaster risks, including from human-induced hazards, in the management plans and systems for the World Heritage properties located in their territories."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7

16. "[The World Heritage Committee] urges States Parties to include risk mitigation measures in the management plans of World Heritage properties to address the potential effects of conflicts or disasters on their integrity;"

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7
24. "[The World Heritage Committee] also recalls the need for all States Parties to continue, and where necessary to strengthen all efforts to build resilience of World Heritage properties to Climate Change, including by further reducing to the greatest extent possible all other pressures and threats, and by developing and implementing climate adaptation strategies for properties at risk of Climate Change impacts."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 7
24. "[The World Heritage Committee] encourages States Parties and other stakeholders to further strengthen international cooperation aiming at mitigating impacts of major natural disasters affecting World Heritage properties and reducing vulnerabilities on lives, properties and livelihoods."

3.5    Factors affecting properties

3.5.1    Buildings and development

The physical footprint in relatively localized areas including:

Housing (For example: Urban high rise/urban sprawl, Encroachment/changes to skyline, etc). Commercial development (For example: Skyscrapers, Large shopping malls, Encroachment/changes to skyline etc). Industrial areas (For example: Individual factories, Industrial areas/parks, Encroachment/changes to skyline etc). Major visitor accommodation and associated infrastructure (For example: Major accommodation and associated infrastructure (hotels, restaurants, golf courses, ski resorts, etc, Major/permanent high cost tourism facilities (pontoons, jetties, observatories, cable cars , chalets, fully serviced camping areas, etc). Interpretative and visitation facilities (For example: Visitor interpretive facilities (visitor centre, site museum, etc), Signage etc, Trail hardening (trail markers etc), Information booths etc, Minor picnic facilities, Minor camping areas, Moorings/marker buoys.

Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape
Preamble

“The dynamic nature of living cities [must be recognized]. However, (…) rapid and frequently uncontrolled development is transforming urban areas and their settings, which may cause fragmentation and deterioration to urban heritage with deep impacts on community values, throughout the world”.


Preamble

“In order to support the protection of natural and cultural heritage, emphasis needs to be put on the integration of historic urban area conservation, management and planning strategies into local development processes and urban planning, such as, contemporary architecture and infrastructure development, for which the application of a landscape approach would help maintain urban identity”.



22. “Conservation of the urban heritage should be integrated into general policy planning and practices and those related to the broader urban context. Policies should provide mechanisms for balancing conservation and sustainability in the short and long terms. Special emphasis should be placed on the harmonious, integration of contemporary interventions into the historic urban fabric. In particular, the responsibilities of the different stakeholders are the following:

(a) Member States should integrate urban heritage conservation strategies into national development policies and agendas according to the historic urban landscape approach. Within this framework, local authorities should prepare urban development plans taking into account the area’s values, including the landscape and other heritage values, and features associated therewith;

(b) Public and private stakeholders should cooperate, inter alia, through partnerships to ensure the successful application of the historic urban landscape approach;

(c) International organizations dealing with sustainable development processes should integrate the historic urban landscape approach into their strategies, plans and operations;

(d) National and international non-governmental organizations should participate in developing and disseminating tools and best practices for the implementation of the historic urban landscape approach”.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 34 COM 7C
8. "Given the percentage of threats related to Development and infrastructure projects and to high-rise buildings (…) [the World Heritage Committee] stresses the need for structured heritage impact assessments of major projects to be carried out at the earliest opportunity in order to assess the impact of potential projects on Outstanding Universal Value of World Heritage properties."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7
26. "(…) The increasing urban pressure in and around numerous World Heritage properties has become a major threat to their Outstanding Universal Value (OUV)."
Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee recommends to develop a comprehensive urban land use plan, which includes provisions for protection mechanisms and regulatory measures to ensure the adequate protection and control of the property and its landscape setting (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[13]

The World Heritage Committee recommends to put in place appropriate protection and planning measures and to develop an integrated urban conservation and development tool, in the urban settlement and its wider context, in order to address development pressures, to protect the urban landscape and prevent the construction of new buildings that could have a visual impact (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[14]

3.5.2    Transportation infrastructure

The  physical 'footprint' and derived effects of use (includes visitor transportation infrastructure).
Ground transport infrastructure (For example: Roads, Car parks, Railways, including easements). Air transport infrastructure (For example: Airports, Airstrips). Marine transport infrastructure (For example: Harbour & port facilities). Effects arising from use of transportation infrastructure (For example: Effects of vehicle traffic on roadways, Effects of shipping traffic in shipping routes, Effects of air traffic).

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 40 COM 7

25. "[The World Heritage Committee] notes with concern that the number of cases of ground transport infrastructure having potential impact on the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of World Heritage properties is continuing to grow, and calls upon States Parties to carry out Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs) early in the process of transportation planning to allow for potential impacts of the OUV, including those resulting from foreseeable associated future developments, to be identified prior to the development of specific projects;

26. Encourages States Parties to carry out Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Heritage Impact Assessments (HIA) on ground transport projects, once they are designed, with multiple options to ensure that transportation needs can be met with minimal impacts on the OUV of World Heritage properties."

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee requests Heritage Impact Assessments and Environmental Impact Assessments of all significant development proposals in the property and of any major transportation infrastructure project, before approval for the schemes is granted and prior to making any decisions that would be difficult to reverse, including definitive location and plans for construction, in order to identify any adverse impacts on the property and ways to mitigate these impacts, and to submit the HIA and the EIA to the World Heritage Centre for review by the Advisory Bodies, in accordance with Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[15]

The World Heritage Committee requests the State Party to submit, in accordance to Paragraph 172 of the Operational Guidelines, details about any cable car project, including design, technical specifications and precise location of the route, in relation to the inscribed property, together with a HIA and an EIA, well before any irrevocable decisions are taken about the construction of the cable car (based on case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[16]

3.5.3    Utilities or service infrastructure

Developments in relation to infrastructure for energy utilities (i.e. gas, electricity and water) and other service requirements.
Water infrastructure (For example: Dams, Locks, Water tanks, Pumping stations, Introduction of new systems/infrastructure). Renewable energy facilities (For example: Thermal, Wave, Solar, Wind). Non-renewable energy facilities (For example: Nuclear power plants, Coal power plants, Oil/gas facilities). Localised utilities (For example:  Incinerators, Cell phone towers, Sewerage works, Microwave/TV/radio towers). Major linear utilities (For example:  Power lines/easements, Pipelines etc). Channels.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 40 COM 7
17. "[The World Heritage Committee, noting] with significant concern that an increasing number of properties are facing potential threats from major dam projects, considers that the construction of dams with large reservoirs within the boundaries of World Heritage properties is incompatible with their World Heritage status, and urges States Parties to ensure that the impacts from dams that could affect properties located upstream or downstream within the same river basin are rigorously assessed in order to avoid impacts on the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV)."
Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee recommends to strengthen the protection of the immediate and wider setting of properties for addressing the impact of wind turbines, and to identify a wind turbine exclusion zone, based on the potential visual impact on the components of the property (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[17]

The World Heritage Committee requests to conduct an adequate environmental impact study for the power transmission lines, before any decision is taken (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[18]

3.5.4    Pollution

All types of pollution (residential or commercial) as well as garbage, solid waste.
Pollution of marine waters (For example: Ocean dumping, Bilge water discharge, Solid debris in marine environments). Ground water pollution (For example: Oil / chemical spills, Industrial effluent, Agricultural runoff, Household sewage/waste, Acid sulphate soils, Effluent discharge, Mine/tailings runoff). Surface water pollution (For example: Acid rain, Mine/tailings runoff, Agricultural runoff). Air pollution (For example: Excessive smoke or other airborne particulates, Dust, Local effects of emissions from use of fossil fuels). Solid waste (For example: Mine tailings, Litter, Industrial waste, Household rubbish). Input of excess energy (For example: Any inputs of heat and light that disturb ecosystems including inappropriate urban lighting, heat pollution, etc.).

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee recommends to enhance the regulation and monitoring of pollution, and to create management plans that consider options to address and to put in place adequate measures to mitigate the impact associated to the pollution, and its potential impact on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property, including the control of sources of pollution affecting the property (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[19]

3.5.5    Biological resource use/modification

The collecting/harvesting of wild plants and animals (forestry, fishing, hunting, gathering) and harvesting domesticated species (silviculture, agriculture, aquaculture).
Fishing/collecting aquatic resources (For example: Trawling, Netting, Line fishing, Game fishing, Collection/harvest fisheries, Spearfishing, By-catch/incidental take issues). Aquaculture (For example: Marine, Freshwater aquaculture). Land conversion (For example: Agriculture (crops and livestock), Rural, Forestry). Livestock farming/grazing of domesticated animals (For example: Grazing on farms or by pastoral groups). Crop production (For example: Deep ploughing, New crops, Intensification of planted agriculture, Traditional crops, Traditional systems, Gardening). Commercial wild plant collection (For example: Pharmaceutical trade, Medicinal plant, Fodder collection, Thatching, Mushrooms, Bulbs etc). Subsistence wild plant collection -Indigenous subsistence hunting, gathering and collecting, i.e. not for economic benefit, for example: Food plants, Medicinal plants, Fodder collection, Thatching, Mushrooms, Bulbs etc). Commercial hunting (For example:  Bushmeat trade, Guided game hunting, Subsistence hunting). Subsistence, i.e. not for economic benefit, hunting. Forestry /wood production (For example: Logging, Pulp production, All silvicultural operations, Restoration/regeneration, Sustainable wood harvesting).

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee encourages States Parties to ensure that no commercial logging can be permitted within the property/to ban all commercial logging (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[20]

The World Heritage Committee requests to undertake research to determine the effects and negative impact of fishing activities on the OUV of the property and to work with communities to promote sustainable fishing practices (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[21]

3.5.6    Physical resource extraction

Mining. Quarrying For example: Rock, Sand, Aggregates. Oil and gas. Water.

Decisions of the World Heritage Committee 37 COM 7 and 40 COM 7

18. "[The World Heritage Committee] notes with significant concern that World Heritage properties are increasingly threatened by extractive industries (…), once again urges all States Parties to the Convention and leading industry stakeholders to respect the "No-go" commitment by not permitting extractive activities within World Heritage properties, and by making every effort to ensure that extractives companies located in their territory cause no damage to World Heritage properties, in line with Article 6 of the Convention."

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee requests States Parties not to explore or mine in World Heritage properties, in line with the Committee’s established position that mineral exploration and mining are incompatible with World Heritage status and the international policy statement of the International Council on Mining and Metals (ICMM) of not undertaking these activities in World Heritage properties (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[22]

The World Heritage Committee reiterates that mining activities and oil and gas exploration and exploitation are incompatible with World Heritage status (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[23]

When mining or other type of exploitation is foreseen, the World Heritage Committee requests to get an Environmental and Social Impact Assessment, meeting international standards, before any commencement of exploitation at the property and adjacent to the property (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[24]

3.5.7    Local conditions affecting the fabric

Environmental or biological factors that promote or contribute to deterioration processes of the fabric of heritage sites. Since decay effects cannot be attributed to a single factor, consider all elements.
Wind (For example: Erosion, Vibration). Relative humidity. Temperature. Radiation/light. Dust. Water. Pests. Micro-organisms.

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee requests States Parties to undertake a comprehensive assessment of the conditions as well as an analysis of ways to address the underlying causes of local conditions affecting the fabric, and to elaborate a comprehensive strategy to address the impacts, including priority emergency measures, mitigation measures and an intervention programme (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[25]

3.5.8    Social/cultural uses of heritage

Social factors that contribute to deterioration processes of the fabric of heritage sites. Some uses might have a positive impact as they enhance certain values (eg ritual, religious) while others might compromise ascribed values and could lead to the deterioration of the heritage place.
Ritual/spiritual/religious and associative uses (For example: Ritual/spiritual/religious uses and associations, Festivals/performances). Society’s valuing of heritage (For example: Changes in values leading to new uses of heritage resources, Expansions of / additions to current uses of heritage resources, Conflicting values, Abandonment). Indigenous hunting, gathering and collecting. Changes in traditional ways of life and knowledge system (For example: Loss of traditional knowledge and practices linked to heritage). Identity, social cohesion, changes in local population and community (For example: Changes to identity and social cohesion, Changes in livelihood, Migration to or from site, Changes in local population and community). Impacts of tourism/visitor/recreation (For example: Inappropriate/non-existent interpretation, High levels of visitation, Increase of vendors inside/outside site, Building community support, sustainable livelihoods).

Paragraph 90

“For all properties nominated under criteria (vii) - (x), bio-physical processes and landform features should be relatively intact. However, it is recognized that no area is totally pristine and that all natural areas are in a dynamic state, and to some extent involve contact with people. Human activities, including those of traditional societies and local communities, often occur in natural areas. These activities may be consistent with the Outstanding Universal Value of the area where they are ecologically sustainable.”

Paragraph 119

“World Heritage properties may support a variety of ongoing and proposed uses that are ecologically and culturally sustainable and which may contribute to the quality of life of communities concerned. The State Party and its partners must ensure that such sustainable use or any other change does not impact adversely on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property. For some properties, human use would not be appropriate. Legislations, policies and strategies affecting World Heritage properties should ensure the protection of the Outstanding Universal Value, support the wider conservation of natural and cultural heritage, and promote and encourage the active participation of the communities and stakeholders concerned with the property as necessary conditions to its sustainable protection, conservation, management and presentation.”

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 7

46. "[The World Heritage Committee] requests States Parties to develop Visitor Management Plans that assess appropriate carrying capacity of properties for visitors and address the issue of unregulated tourism."

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee requests States Parties to assess the impacts of grazing, hunting and other human traditional activities on the biodiversity in the traditional use zone and develop a policy for the sustainable use of the natural resources in the traditional use zones in the property in close cooperation with the indigenous communities using these areas (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[26]

The World Heritage Committee encourages States Parties to take into account the traditional uses of local communities and to support the livelihoods of local communities through initiatives related to environmentally and culturally compatible options in order to prevent any threats from human activity to the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of the property, and to promote the sustainable exploitation of resources and sustainable livelihoods (based on case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[27]

The World Heritage Committee recommends States Parties to consider measures in order to address ways to respect the cultural and spiritual values and practices, and sustain the spiritual associations at World Heritage properties (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[28]

The World Heritage Committee recommends States Parties to pay special attention to the living religious heritage at properties, and to adopt efficient regulatory and management instruments to allow for religious uses at concerned properties (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[29]

For the impact of tourism, the World Heritage Committee encourages States Parties, prior to any development of tourism facilities (resort development, ski facilities, golf resorts, etc.) that its potential impact on the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) has been thoroughly assessed and to develop and implement a clear tourism strategy (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[30]

3.5.9    Other human activities

Illegal activities (For example: Illegal extraction of biological resources (i.e. poaching), Blast fishing, cyanide fishing, Illegal extraction of geological resources (mining/fossils), Illegal trade, Illegal occupation of space, Illegal excavations, Illegal construction, Looting, Theft, Treasure hunting, Ghost nets (discarded fishing gear). Deliberate destruction of heritage (For example: Vandalism, Graffiti, Politically motivated acts, Arson). Military training. War. Terrorism. Civil unrest.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 38 COM 7
6. "Reiterating its utmost concern about the continued impacts on World Heritage properties due to the rising pressure from poaching, particularly of elephant, rhinoceros, and valuable timber species, linked to a growing illicit trade, and the increasing involvement of organized crime in this lucrative business, [the World Heritage Committee] reiterates its request to the World Heritage Centre and IUCN to strengthen their cooperation with the Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) to assist States Parties to implement the measures taken by the 16th Conference of the Parties of the CITES (…), and urges States Parties to ensure strong international collaboration and coordination to control the illicit trade in flora and fauna and their products."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7
35. "[The World Heritage Committee] reiterates its utmost concern about the continued impacts of poaching and illegal logging on World Heritage properties driven primarily by the illegal trade of wildlife species and its products, and requests the World Heritage Centre and IUCN to take action, as resources permit, to strengthen the collaboration between the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the World Heritage Convention."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 7

20. "[The World Heritage Committee] expresses its utmost concern about the impacts of conflicts causing an escalation of the already severe poaching crisis in central Africa, as armed groups are financing their activities through illegal wildlife trade, which is having a severe impact on wildlife populations, thereby degrading the Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) of natural World Heritage properties;"

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee requests States Parties to take all measures possible to halt poaching in the property (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[31]

The World Heritage Committee requests States Parties to promote traditional land management practices [and] reiterates its appeal to all Member States of UNESCO to cooperate in the fight against the illicit trade in wildlife and its products, including through the implementation of the CITES, and with the full engagement of transit and destination countries (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[32]

3.5.10    Climate change and severe weather events

Storms (For example: Tornadoes, Hurricanes/cyclones, Gales, Hail damage, Lightning strikes, River/stream overflows, Extreme tides). Flooding. Drought. Desertification. Changes to oceanic waters (For example: Changes to water flow and circulation patterns al local, regional or global scale, Changes to pH, Changes to temperature). Temperature change. Other climate change impacts.

Policy Document on the Impacts of Climate Change on World Heritage Properties

Conclusions. “The following are [the] key principles:

i. in addressing the impacts of climate change on the outstanding universal value, integrity and authenticity of World Heritage properties, the World Heritage community will work in cooperation with other partners that also have responsibility, resources and expertise related to this challenge.

ii. The World Heritage Committee will be an advocate for relevant climate change research, and work to influence and support partners that are mandated and resourced to carry out such research.

iii. World Heritage properties will be used wherever appropriate and possible as a means to raise awareness about the impacts of climate change upon World Heritage to act as a catalyst in the international debate and obtain support for policies to mitigate climate change, and to communicate best practices in vulnerability assessments, adaptation strategies, mitigation opportunities, and pilot projects.

iv. Climate change will be considered in all aspects of nominating, managing, monitoring and reporting on the status of these properties.

v. In considering the threat posed by climate change to the OUV, authenticity and/or integrity of a World Heritage property, the World Heritage Committee will use the existing tools and processes”.

Strategy to Assist States Parties to Implement Appropriate Management Responses (Endorsed by World Heritage Committee at its Decision 30 COM 7.1)

11. “The potential impacts of Climate Change range from physical, to social and cultural aspects. (…). Experience and lessons learned on addressing Climate Change impacts stress the need for using a number of management responses at national and local levels. The World Heritage Convention provides an opportunity to develop strategies to implement relevant actions in respect of cultural and natural heritage properties threatened by Climate Change. Given the complexity of this issue, States Parties may request guidance from the World Heritage Committee to implement appropriate management responses to face the threats posed by Climate Change on their natural and cultural properties inscribed on the World Heritage List”.

13. “Conservation is the management of change, and Climate Change is one of the most significant global challenges facing society and the environment today. The actions that need to be taken to safeguard heritage are threefold:

15. “It is noteworthy that there are strong links between natural and cultural heritage and the Climate Change issue could be used as an opportunity for the two parts of the Convention to be brought closer together”.

16. “(…) Climate Change is one risk among a number of challenges facing World Heritage sites. This threat should be considered in the broader context of the conservation of these sites”.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7
24. "[The World Heritage Committee] also recalls the need for all States Parties to continue, and where necessary to strengthen all efforts to build resilience of World Heritage properties to Climate Change, including by further reducing to the greatest extent possible all other pressures and threats, and by developing and implementing climate adaptation strategies for properties at risk of Climate Change impacts."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 29 COM 7B.a

5. "[The World Heritage Committee] notes that the impacts of climate change are affecting many and are likely to affect many more World Heritage properties, both natural and cultural in the years to come;

6. Encourages all States Parties to seriously consider the potential impacts of climate change within their management planning, in particular with monitoring, and risk preparedness strategies, and to take early action in response to these potential impacts;

10. Strongly encourages States Parties and the Advisory Bodies to use the network of World Heritage properties to highlight the threats posed by climate change to natural and cultural heritage, start identifying the properties under most serious threats, and also use the network to demonstrate management actions that need to be taken to meet such threats, both within the properties and in their wider context;

11. Also encourages UNESCO to do its utmost to ensure that the results about climate change affecting World Heritage properties reach the public at large, in order to mobilize political support for activities against climate change and to safeguard in this way the livelihood of the poorest people of our planet."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7
30. “[The World Heritage Committee] notes with concern increasing vandalism at World Heritage properties and encourages States Parties to improve monitoring and security measures as well as awareness raising on the detrimental effects of vandalism, and to consider introducing creative solutions to allow visitors to express themselves without leaving permanent marks or damage."
Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

At site-level, the World Heritage Committee recommends to monitor the impacts of global climate change and to develop adaptive management strategies and mitigation and adaptation measures to ensure the long-term protection of the Outstanding Universal Value of the properties in response to climate and other environmental change (based on Case law further to decisions on the State of Conservation).[33]

3.5.11    Sudden ecological or geological events

Volcanic eruption. Earthquake. Tsunami/tidal wave. Avalanche/landslide. Erosion and siltation/deposition. Fire (For example: Altered fire regimes, High impact fire suppression activities, Lightning strikes, Accidental fires (i.e. dropped cigarettes) not ecological).

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee encourages the assessment of the impacts and the damage caused after a sudden ecological or geological event, and the planning and implementation of the necessary remedial measures, including with a view to strengthening the overall resilience of the properties, to identify mechanisms for adaptive conservation and to improve risk preparedness, together with prevention and monitoring strategies and disaster response plans (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[34]

3.5.12    Invasive/alien species or hyper-abundant species

Translocated species (For example: Fish stocking, Inappropriate plantings, Introduced soil etc, Dieback due to pathogens). Invasive/alien terrestrial species (For example: Weed, Feral animal, Rodent, Insect pest, Bird pest, Disease/parasite, Micro-organism). Invasive/alien freshwater species (For example: Weed, Invertebrate pests, Fish pests, Diseases/parasites, Micro-organisms).

Based on Committee Decisions 39 COM 7 and 41 COM 7

“[The World Heritage Committee] notes with concern the significant and continued threat posed by invasive alien species to natural World Heritage properties, [and] strongly encourages States Parties to develop adequately resourced strategies to eradicate invasive species that emphasize prevention and early warning and rapid response in World Heritage properties, and also calls on the international community to support invasive species eradication campaigns in affected properties.”

3.5.13    Management and institutional factors

Low impact research/monitoring activities (For example: Visitor surveys, Water sampling, Non-extractive surveys, In-situ surveys). High-impact research/monitoring activities (For example: Sampling using destructive techniques, Research involving removal of features or species (i.e. extraction). Management activities.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 38 COM 7
3. "Noting with regret that issues related to Management Plan / System remain a serious cause for concern, [the World Heritage Committee] requests all States Parties to ensure that all World Heritage properties are managed in such a manner that their Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) is not put at risk and, whenever necessary, develop/update and fully implement Management Plans or Systems."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 40 COM 7
"Integrated management, Decision making, Governance

23. [The World Heritage Committee,] noting with concern that the lack of an integrated management approach is reported to cause challenges to the coordination of management and decision making processes of properties where different authorities are involved, in particular in the cases of mixed, serial, and transboundary properties, urges States Parties to establish appropriate mechanisms in order to facilitate a coordinated approach to the management of all properties, in line with the requirements of the Operational Guidelines as laid out in Paragraphs 112, 114, and 135, and encourages States Parties with contiguous natural properties on either side of their international borders, which are not listed as transboundary properties, to establish appropriate mechanisms for cooperation between their respective management authorities and ministries;

24. Also encourages States Parties to promote recognition and awareness across all relevant national and regional agencies of the World Heritage status of the properties on their territory, and to develop mechanisms to ensure consideration of impacts on Outstanding Universal Value (OUV) in the decision making processes of relevant ministries, before permits are issued for developments that could negatively impact the OUV."

3.6    Tourism and visitor management

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention
26. "World Heritage properties are important travel destinations that, if managed properly, have great potential for inclusive local economic development, sustainability and strengthening social resilience. Sustainable forms of tourism development, including community-based initiatives, should be accompanied by inclusive and equitable economic investment to ensure benefit sharing in and around World Heritage properties."
World Heritage Tourism Programme (adopted with Decision 36 COM 5E)

7. “If undertaken responsibly, tourism can be a driver for preservation and conservation of cultural and natural heritage and a vehicle for sustainable development. But if unplanned or not properly managed, tourism can be socially, culturally and economically disruptive, and have a devastating effect on fragile environments and local communities”.

18. “World Heritage and tourism stakeholders share responsibility for conservation of our common cultural and natural heritage of Outstanding Universal Value and for sustainable development through appropriate tourism management”.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 34 COM 5F.2

2. "(…) The relationship between World Heritage and tourism is two way: tourism, if managed well, offers benefits to World Heritage properties and can contribute to cross-cultural exchange but, if not managed well, poses challenges to these properties (…);

Attachment A. Policy orientations: defining the relationship between World Heritage and tourism

2. (...)

Tourism is critical for World Heritage:

a. For States Parties and their individual properties,

i. to meet the requirement in the Convention to 'present' World Heritage;

ii. to realise community and economic benefits.

b. For the World Heritage Convention as a whole, as the means by which World Heritage properties are experienced by visitors travelling nationally and internationally,

c. As a major means by which the performance of World Heritage properties, and therefore the standing of the Convention, is judged,

i. many World Heritage properties do not identify themselves as such, or do not adequately present their Outstanding Universal Value;

ii. it would be beneficial to develop indicators of the quality of presentation, and the representation of the World Heritage brand.

d. As a credibility issue in relation to: i. the potential for tourism infrastructure to damage Outstanding Universal Value

i. the threat that World Heritage properties may be unsustainably managed in relation to their adjoining communities;

ii. sustaining the conservation objectives of the Convention whilst engaging with economic development;

iii. realistic aspirations that World Heritage can attract tourism."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 38 COM 7

5. "[The World Heritage Committee] also noting that tourism development in and around World Heritage properties is a key issue for their management, strongly encourages States Parties to ensure sustainable planning and management of tourism at World Heritage properties and to contribute to the implementation of the World Heritage Centre’s World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Programme."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 7

46. "[The World Heritage Committee] requests States Parties to develop Visitor Management Plans that assess appropriate carrying capacity of properties for visitors and address the issue of unregulated tourism."

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee recommends States Parties to develop a comprehensive tourism management plan or a sustainable tourism strategy, including a set of measures to address the tourism pressure on the site (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[35]

At sites with a high tourism pressure, the World Heritage Committee requests States Parties to put in place all necessary strategic, planning and management frameworks as well as legal regulations for cruise ship tourism, including identification of the sustainable carrying capacity of the site and an analysis of the impact on the World Heritage property by cruise ships (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[36]

3.7    Sustainable development

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention

2. “In the current context of changing demographics and climate, growing inequalities, diminishing resources, and growing threats to heritage, the need has become apparent to view conservation objectives, (…) with a broader range of economic, social and environmental values and needs encompassed in the sustainable development concept”.

4. “In addition to protecting the OUV of World Heritage properties, States Parties should, (…) recognise and promote the properties' inherent potential to contribute to all dimensions of sustainable development and work to harness the collective benefits for society, also by ensuring that their conservation and management strategies are aligned with broader sustainable development objectives. In this process, the properties’ OUV should not be compromised”.

5. “The integration of a sustainable development perspective into the World Heritage Convention will enable all stakeholders involved in its implementation, in particular at national level, to act with social responsibility (…)”.

6. “States Parties should recognise, by appropriate means, that World Heritage conservation and management strategies that incorporate a sustainable development perspective embrace not only the protection of the OUV, but also the wellbeing of present and future generations”.

7. (…) the overarching principles are (…):

- “Human Rights - The human rights embedded in the UN Charter and the range of broadly ratified human rights instruments reflect fundamental values that underpin the very possibility for dignity, peace and sustainable development. In implementing the World Heritage Convention, it is therefore essential to respect, protect and promote these environmental, social, economic, and cultural rights.

- Equality: The reduction of inequalities in all societies is essential to a vision of inclusive sustainable development. The conservation and management of World Heritage properties should therefore contribute to reducing inequalities, as well as its structural causes, including discrimination and exclusion.

- Sustainability, through a long-term perspective: Sustainability, broadly defined, is inherent to the spirit of the World Heritage Convention. It should serve as a fundamental principle for all aspects of development and for all societies. In the context of the World Heritage Convention, this means applying a long-term perspective to all processes of decision-making within World Heritage properties, with a view to fostering intergenerational equity, justice, and a world fit for present and future generations”.

8. “States Parties should (…) recognize the close links and interdependence of biological diversity and local cultures within the socio-ecological systems of many World Heritage properties”.

9. “All dimensions of sustainable development should apply to natural, cultural and mixed properties in their diversity. These dimensions are interdependent and mutually reinforcing, with none having predominance over another and each being equally necessary. States Parties should therefore review and reinforce governance frameworks within management systems of World Heritage properties in order to achieve the appropriate balance, integration and harmonization between the protection of OUV and the pursuit of sustainable development objectives”.

13. “The role of World Heritage properties as a guarantee of sustainable development needs to be strengthened. Their full potential to contribute to sustainable development needs to be harnessed”.

14. “The World Heritage Convention promotes sustainable development, and in particular environmental sustainability, by valuing and conserving places of outstanding natural heritage value, containing exceptional biodiversity, geodiversity or other exceptional natural features, which are essential for human well-being. A concern for environmental sustainability, however, should equally apply to cultural and mixed World Heritage properties, including cultural landscapes. In implementing the Convention, States Parties should therefore promote environmental sustainability more generally to all World Heritage properties to ensure policy coherence and mutual supportiveness with other multilateral environmental agreements. This involves a responsible interaction with the environment in both cultural and natural properties, to avoid depletion or degradation of natural resources, ensuring long-term environmental quality and the strengthening of resilience to disasters and climate change”.

15. “States Parties should ensure that biological and cultural diversity, as well as ecosystem services and benefits for people that contribute to environmental sustainability, are protected and enhanced within World Heritage properties, their buffer zones and their wider settings (…)”.

24. “World Heritage properties, as cultural and natural heritage in general, offer great potential to alleviate poverty and enhance sustainable livelihoods of local communities, including those of marginalized populations. (…) The Convention should therefore contribute to promoting sustainable forms of inclusive and equitable economic development, productive and even employment and income-generating activities for all, while fully respecting the OUV of World Heritage properties”.

Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (Preamble)

“The principle of sustainable development provides for the preservation of existing resources, the active protection of urban heritage and its sustainable management is a condition sine qua non of development”.

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 6

“(…) The protection and conservation of the natural and cultural heritage are a significant contribution to sustainable development.”
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 5C
4. "[The World Heritage Committee] reiterates the need to achieve the right balance between environmental, social and economic sustainability, while fully respecting and protecting the Outstanding Universal Value of World Heritage properties."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7

37. "Recalling that the World Heritage Convention explicitly links the concepts of cultural and natural heritage, highlights the importance of promoting integrated approaches that strengthen holistic governance, improve conservation outcomes and contribute to sustainable development;

38. [The World Heritage Committee] notes with appreciation the growing interest and efforts by the States Parties and heritage practitioners to develop and apply integrated approaches to conservation of natural and cultural heritage, and encourages the States Parties, the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies, in cooperation with universities and other relevant actors, to continue and expand these efforts, in accordance with the Policy Document for the integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective into the Processes of the Convention (2015)."


4    Policies Regarding CAPACITY-BUILDING

Capacity-building – whether of practitioners, institutions or communities and networks – is seen as a form of people-centred change that entails working with groups of individuals to achieve improvements in approaches to managing heritage.

Capacity-building in the World Heritage framework can encompass the strengthening of knowledge, abilities, skills and behaviour of people with direct responsibilities for heritage conservation and management. It can improve institutional structures and processes through empowering decision-makers and policy-makers, and can introduce a more dynamic relationship between heritage and its context and, in turn, greater reciprocal benefits by using a more inclusive approach, and in a way that provides a sustainable approach to missions and goals.

The Capacity-Building theme includes policy related to Capacity-Building for the Convention, including the Capacity Building Strategy.


4.1    General capacity-building policies

World Heritage Convention

Article 5

“To ensure that effective and active measures are taken for the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage situated on its territory, each State Party to this Convention shall endeavor, in so far as possible, and as appropriate for each country: (…)

(e) to foster the establishment or development of national or regional centres for training in the protection, conservation and presentation of the cultural and natural heritage and to encourage scientific research in this field."

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention
11. “The integration of a sustainable development perspective into the processes of the World Heritage Convention will require the building of necessary capacities among practitioners, institutions, concerned communities and networks, across a wide interdisciplinary and inter-sectorial spectrum (…)”.
WHC-01/CONF.208/14 Global Training Strategy for World Cultural and Natural Heritage
“C. Principles and Operational Framework for Training

1. Training is a highly cost-effective means to achieve Committee objectives

2. Training should be integrated into the World Heritage planning framework.”
Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 211

“The objectives [of Educational Programmes] are:

a) to enhance capacity-building and research;

b) to raise the general public’s awareness, understanding and appreciation of the need to preserve cultural and natural heritage;

c) to enhance the function of World Heritage in the life of the community; and

d) to increase the participation of local and national populations in the protection and presentation of heritage.”

Paragraph 212

“The Committee seeks to develop capacity-building within the States Parties in conformity with its Strategic Objectives.”

Paragraph 213

“Recognizing the high level of skills and multidisciplinary approach necessary for the protection, conservation, and presentation of the World Heritage, the Committee has adopted a Global Training Strategy for World Cultural and Natural Heritage. The primary goal of the Global Training Strategy is to ensure that necessary skills are developed by a wide range of actors for better implementation of the Convention (…).”

Paragraph 214

“States Parties are encouraged to ensure that their professionals and specialists at all levels are adequately trained. To this end, States Parties are encouraged to develop national training strategies and include regional co-operation for training as part of their strategies.”
Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee requests States Parties to undertake capacity-building activities for all local stakeholders concerned to raise awareness of World Heritage management requirements (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[37]

The World Heritage Committee encourages States Parties to implement initiatives for capacity building and transmission of traditional know-how for the sustainable development and use of the property (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[38]

4.2    Global capacity-building strategy

World Heritage Capacity Building Strategy

3. “[The World Heritage Capacity Building Strategy] proposes a paradigm shift to step beyond conventional training to embrace a capacity building approach. Current needs demonstrate that the audience for capacity building for World Heritage conservation and management activities is wide, diverse and growing. Creating and strengthening capacities of institutions and of networks that link the heritage sector to wider communities is as much a priority as the training of individual practitioners. Capacities reside on practitioners, institutions, and communities and networks, which are the target audiences for capacity building at the Strategy (…). Capacity building – whether of practitioners, institutions or communities and networks- is seen as a form of people-centered change that entails working with groups of individuals to achieve improvements in approaches to managing cultural and natural heritage (…). Capacity building should be understood as the most cost-effective means by which World Heritage Committee can protect the Outstanding Universal Value and other values of World Heritage properties and ensure a mutually beneficial dynamic between heritage and society”.

4. “[The Strategy also proposes a paradigm shift from] treating natural and cultural heritage actors separately to the realization that capacity building actions can be strengthened by creating joint opportunities (…).”

7. “Vision. We envisage a world where practitioners, institutions, communities and networks are enlightened, capable and closely aligned in their work to protect World Heritage, and heritage in general, and to give it a positive role in the life of communities. Practitioners will be able to better protect and manage World Heritage. Institutions will be capable of providing support for effective conservation and management through favorable legislation and policies, establishing a more effective administrative set-up and providing financial and human resources for heritage protection. Communities and networks will be aware of the importance of heritage and support its conservation”.

9. “Key Goals and Summary Action Plan on World Heritage Capacity Building. The Capacity Building Strategy is organized according to the “5Cs” that represent the established strategic directions of the World Heritage Convention. The table below sets out the 9 main goals of the Strategy, the principal actions that are recommended in relation to each, and the main audience in terms of practitioners, institutions and communities”.

10. “The World Heritage Capacity Building Strategy foresees each UNESCO region developing a regional capacity building strategy and associated programmes for strengthening capacities at the regional level. This strategy will be different for each region in order to respond to the specific needs and situation in each of the regions.”

11. “National Capacity Building Strategies. It would also be useful for interested State Parties to develop national capacity building strategies. These strategies can use a similar methodology as the one at the regional level, and can also be carried out at the time of the preparation and analysis of the Periodic Reporting questionnaires. This exercise will allow an individual State Party to better understand specific national and property based capacity building needs. The State Party should also investigate what national, regional, and international capacity building institutions exist that can assist in the development of national and local capacities. These national capacity building strategies could be very useful for State Parties to be able to analyze the exact human resource needs at national institutions (not just for heritage organizations, but also related institutions dealing with tourism, planning, development, etc). These national strategies would also be best placed to ensure that there is capacity building for other relevant stakeholders at the level of World Heritage properties and in particular at the level of local communities. In certain instances, it may be useful for more than one country to work on a joint strategy. The World Heritage Centre, Advisory Bodies, and other capacity building providers should provide necessary technical support and facilitation to States Parties wishing to develop national strategies”.


5    Policies Regarding COMMUNICATION

The World Heritage Convention encourages States Parties to strengthen the appreciation of the public for World Heritage properties and to enhance their protection through educational and information programmes.

The presentation and interpretation of World Heritage sites should, as set out in the Convention text, increase people’s awareness, understanding and appreciation of the need to preserve cultural and natural heritage, ensuring that future generations understand the values associated with this heritage and helping to increase stakeholders’ participation in the protection and presentation of heritage.

The Communication theme includes policies related to education, awareness raising, interpretation and use of the World Heritage emblem.


5.1    Education and awareness-raising

The Budapest Declaration on World Heritage

3. "(...)

e) [The World Heritage Committee will] promote World Heritage through communication, education, research, training and public awareness strategies."

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 217

“States Parties are encouraged to raise awareness of the need to preserve World Heritage. In particular, they should ensure that World Heritage status is adequately marked and promoted on-site”.

Paragraph 219

“The World Heritage Committee encourages and supports the development of educational materials, activities and programmes.”

WHC-11/18.GA/11 Future of the World Heritage Convention
[The General Assembly adopted the Vision and Action Plan by Resolution 18 GA 11; the paragraph refers to the report]

9. "(…) Conservation and communication are complementary tasks. For World Heritage, increased awareness and knowledge of World Heritage objectives can increase commitment to conserve, engage with and support cultural and natural heritage sites (…)."
Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

At site-level, the World Heritage Committee encourages States Parties to organize awareness-raising activities for local population and surrounding communities, to mobilize their active participation in heritage conservation and management (based on Case law further to decisions on the State of Conservation).[39]

5.2    Interpretation

Annex 5

“[World Heritage site] should consider visitor facilities that may include interpretation/explanation (signage, trails, notices or publications, guides); museum/exhibition devoted to the property, visitor or interpretation centre; and/or potential use of digital technologies."

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee recommends to develop a comprehensive site presentation and interpretation programme for visitors (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[40]

5.3    World Heritage emblem

Paragraph 264

“The Emblem (…) has fund-raising potential that can be used to enhance the marketing value of products with which it is associated. A balance is needed between the Emblem's use to further the aims of the Convention and optimize knowledge of the Convention worldwide and the need to prevent its abuse for inaccurate, inappropriate, and unauthorized commercial or other purposes.”

Paragraph 267

“States Parties to the Convention should take all possible measures to prevent the use of the Emblem in their respective countries by any group or for any purpose not explicitly recognized by the Committee. States Parties are encouraged to make full use of national legislation including Trade Mark Laws”.


6    Policies Regarding COMMUNITIES

One of the central objectives of the World Heritage Convention is to enhance the role of communities in the implementation of the Convention and to encourage the participation of the local population and different stakeholders in the preservation of their cultural and natural heritage. In addition, the Convention asks each State Party ‘to adopt a general policy which aims to give the cultural and natural heritage a function in the life of the community ’.

The theme of Communities includes policies related to the participation of local communities and other stakeholders, human rights and a rights-based approach, gender, indigenous peoples, youth, and fostering of peace and security.


6.1    Participation of local communities and other stakeholders

World Heritage Convention

Article 5

"[The World Heritage Convention calls upon States Parties] to adopt a general policy which aims to give the cultural and natural heritage a function in the life of the community (…)."

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention

17. “(…) Inclusive social development is at the heart of the implementation of the (…) Convention. States Parties should further recognise that full inclusion, respect and equity of all stakeholders, including local and concerned communities and indigenous peoples, together with a commitment to gender equality, are a fundamental premise for inclusive social development (…)”.

19. “World Heritage properties have the potential to enhance quality of life and wellbeing of all stakeholders, and in particular local communities (…)”.

The Budapest Declaration on World Heritage

3. “In view of the increasing challenges to our shared heritage, we will:

c) (…) seek to ensure an appropriate and equitable balance between conservation, sustainability and development, so that World Heritage properties can be protected through appropriate activities contributing to the social and economic development and the quality of life of our communities;

f) (…) seek to ensure the active involvement of our local communities at all levels in the identification, protection and management of our World Heritage properties”.

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 39

“A partnership approach to nomination, management and monitoring provides a significant contribution to the protection of World Heritage properties and the implementation of the Convention.

Paragraph 123

“Participation in the nomination process of local communities, indigenous peoples, governmental, non-governmental and private organizations and other stakeholders is essential to enable them to have a shared responsibility with the State Party in the maintenance of the property. States Parties are encouraged to prepare nominations with the widest possible participation of stakeholders and to demonstrate, as appropriate, that the free, prior and informed consent of indigenous peoples has been obtained, through, inter alia, making the nominations publicly available in appropriate languages and public consultations and hearings”.

Paragraph 117

“States Parties are responsible for implementing effective management activities for a World Heritage property. State Parties should do so in close collaboration with property managers, the agency with management authority and other partners, and stakeholders in property management.”

Paragraph 64

“States Parties are encouraged to prepare their Tentative Lists with the participation of a wide variety of stakeholders, including site managers, local and regional governments, local communities, NGOs and other interested parties and partners.”

Paragraph 40

“Partners in the protection and conservation of World Heritage can be those individuals and other stakeholders, especially local communities, indigenous peoples, governmental, non-governmental and private organizations and owners who have an interest and involvement in the conservation and management of a World Heritage property.”
WHC-11/18.GA/11 Future of the World Heritage Convention
[The General Assembly adopted the Vision and Action Plan by Resolution 18 GA 11; the paragraph refers to the report]

8. “The World Heritage Convention is implemented through a wide and ever-expanding network of actors. Each has an important role to play in shaping policies, driving management practices, building capacity and expanding awareness of cultural and natural heritage. (…) It is also important to ensure that local, national and international communities feel a connection to, engage with and benefit from the world’s natural and cultural heritage."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 31 COM 13A

5. "[The World Heritage Committee] decides to maintain credibility, conservation, capacity building and communication as strategic objectives in the implementation of the Convention whilst restating the different components and, recognizing the critical importance of involving indigenous, traditional and local communities in the implementation of the Convention, further decides to add ‘communities’ as a fifth strategic objective."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 35 COM 12E
15. g) “[The World Heritage Committee encourages States Parties to] establish and promote horizontal cooperation and understanding among various institutions that have an impact on cultural and natural heritage, also including governmental institutions responsible for UNESCO programmes implementation on national level, economy, finance, regional development/ planning, tourism, social welfare as well as local authorities”.
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7
40. "[The World Heritage Committee] takes note with appreciation of the Chairperson of the 41st session of the World Heritage Committee’s initiative on structured dialogue with civil society and encourages States Parties and civil society organizations to continue exploring possibilities how civil society can further contribute to enhanced conservation of heritage on the site and national level and provide relevant input to the heritage related debate at the global level."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 5B
5. "[The World Heritage Committee] affirms the value of strengthening and improving dialogue between the Advisory Bodies and the States Parties."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 7
13. "[The World Heritage Committee] welcomes the continued interest of civil society organizations in the Convention, acknowledging the important contribution that can be made to the promotion and conservation of heritage on the ground and to capacity-building."

6.2    Human rights and rights-based approach

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention

7. "(...)

i. Human Rights: The human rights embedded in the UN Charter and the range of broadly ratified human rights instruments reflect fundamental values that underpin the very possibility for dignity, peace and sustainable development. In implementing the World Heritage Convention, it is therefore essential to respect, protect and promote these environmental, social, economic, and cultural rights".

17. "The World Heritage Convention in Article 5 calls upon States Parties to “adopt a general policy which aims to give the cultural and natural heritage a function in the life of the community”. States Parties should recognise that inclusive social development is at the heart of the implementation of this provision of the Convention. States Parties should further recognise that full inclusion, respect and equity of all stakeholders, including local and concerned communities and indigenous peoples, together with a commitment to gender equality, are a fundamental premise for inclusive social development. Enhancing quality of life and well-being in and around World Heritage properties is essential, taking into account communities who might not visit or reside in or near properties but are still stakeholders. Inclusive social development must be underpinned by inclusive governance".

18. "States Parties should ensure that the conservation and management of World Heritage properties is based on recognition of cultural diversity, inclusion and equity (…)".

20. "(…) To ensure policy coherence in conserving and managing World Heritage properties, States Parties should commit to uphold, respect and contribute to the implementation of the full range of international human rights standards as a pre-requisite for effectively achieving sustainable development. To this end, States Parties should:

i. Ensure that the full cycle of World Heritage processes from nomination to management is compatible with and supportive of human rights;

ii. Adopt a rights-based approach, which promotes World Heritage properties as exemplary places for the application of the highest standards for the respect and realization of human rights;

iii. Develop, through equitable participation of concerned people, relevant standards and safeguards, guidance tools and operational mechanisms for assessment, nomination, management, evaluation and reporting processes compatible with and effective rights-based approach for both existing and potential new properties;

iv. Promote technical cooperation and capacity-building to ensure effective rights-based approaches".

6.3    Gender equality

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention

23. "(...) States Parties should:

i. Ensure respect for gender equality throughout the full cycle of World Heritage processes, particularly in the preparation and content of nomination dossiers;

ii. Ensure social and economic opportunities for both women and men in and around World Heritage properties;

iii. Ensure equal and respectful consultation, full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership and representation of both women and men within activities for the conservation and management of World Heritage properties;

iv. When or where relevant, ensure that gender-rooted traditional practices within World Heritage properties, for example in relation to access or participation in management mechanisms, have received the full consent of all groups within the local communities through transparent consultation processes that fully respects gender equality."

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 155

“In the framework of the Gender Equality Priority of UNESCO, the use of gender-neutral language in the preparation of Statements of Outstanding Universal Value is encouraged.”

6.4    Indigenous peoples

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention

21. “(…) The World Heritage Committee specifically encourages the effective and equitable involvement and participation of indigenous peoples and local communities in decision-making, monitoring and evaluation of World Heritage properties and the respect of indigenous peoples’ rights in nominating, managing and reporting on World Heritage properties in their own territories. Recognising rights and fully involving indigenous peoples and local communities, in line with international standards is at the heart of sustainable development”.

22. “(...) States parties should:

i. Develop relevant standards, guidance and operational mechanisms for indigenous peoples and local community involvement in World Heritage processes;

ii. Ensure adequate consultations, the free, prior and informed consent and equitable and effective participation of indigenous peoples where World Heritage nomination, management and policy measures affect their territories, lands, resources and ways of life;

iii. Actively promote indigenous and local initiatives to develop equitable governance arrangements, collaborative management systems and, when appropriate, redress mechanisms;

iv. Support appropriate activities contributing to the building of a sense of shared responsibility for heritage among indigenous people and local communities, by recognizing both universal and local values within management systems for World Heritage properties”.

Operational Guidelines

Paragraph 123

“Participation in the nomination process of local communities, indigenous peoples, governmental, non-governmental and private organizations and other stakeholders is essential to enable them to have a shared responsibility with the State Party in the maintenance of the property. States Parties are encouraged to prepare nominations with the widest possible participation of stakeholders and to demonstrate, as appropriate, that the free, prior and informed consent of indigenous peoples has been obtained, through, inter alia, making the nominations publicly available in appropriate languages and public consultations and hearings”.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 35 COM 12E

15. "(...)

e) [The World Heritage Committee encourages States Parties to] involve indigenous peoples and local communities in decision making, monitoring and evaluation of the state of conservation of the properties and their Outstanding Universal Value and link the direct community benefits to protection outcomes;

f) [The World Heritage Committee encourages States Parties to] respect the rights of indigenous peoples when nominating, managing and reporting on World Heritage sites in indigenous peoples' territories."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7
41. "[The World Heritage Committee] notes, in conformity with Resolution 20 GA 13 of the General Assembly of the World Heritage Convention and the Decision 39 COM 11 (Bonn, 2015) of the World Heritage Committee, the establishment of the International Indigenous Peoples Forum on World Heritage as an important reflection platform on the involvement of Indigenous Peoples in the identification, conservation and management of World Heritage properties, with a particular focus on the nomination process."
Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee requests States Parties to strengthen the cooperation with local communities, civil society and in particular the indigenous communities, including consideration of traditional knowledge for the management of the property (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[41]

The World Heritage Committee requests States Parties to assess the impacts of grazing, hunting and other human traditional activities on the biodiversity in the traditional use zone and develop a policy for the sustainable use of the natural resources in the traditional use zones in the property in close cooperation with the indigenous communities using these areas (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[42]

The World Heritage Committee requests to take into account the property uses by the indigenous populations, and encourages consultation and involvement in decision-making with resource-dependent communities in and around the property, to find mutually acceptable ways to resolve any potential use conflicts, while respecting any rights of use, and on the basis of an accurate assessment of impacts from resource use on the Outstanding Universal Value of the property (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[43]

The World Heritage Committee requests that any development project to count with all elements of due process to achieve Free, Prior and Informed Consent by indigenous communities having territorial rights in the affected lands (based on Case law on decisions on the State of Conservation).[44]

The World Heritage Committee requests to protect the indigenous peoples living in voluntary isolation and in initial contact from external pressures (based on Case law of decisions on the State of Conservation).[45]

6.5    Youth

Paragraph 241

[International Assistance could be dedicated to] stimulate joint education, information and promotional programmes and activities, especially when they involve the participation of young people for the benefit of World Heritage conservation.

[International Assistance could be dedicated] at the national level for meetings specifically organized to make the Convention better known, especially amongst young people (…) [and for the] preparation and discussion of education and information material (…) for the general promotion of the Convention and the World Heritage List (…), and especially for young people”.

6.6    Fostering of peace and security

Policy for the Integration of a Sustainable Development Perspective Into the Processes of the World Heritage Convention

28. “Sustainable development and the conservation of the world’s cultural and natural heritage are undermined by war, civil conflict and all forms of violence. The World Heritage Convention is an integral part of UNESCO’s established mandate to build bridges towards peace and security. It is therefore incumbent upon States Parties, in conformity also with provisions of the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (The 1954 Hague Convention) and its two (1954 and 1999) Protocols, for the States that have ratified them, as well as in accordance with the UNESCO Declaration concerning the Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage (2003) and international customary law protecting cultural property in the event of armed conflict, to ensure that the implementation of the World Heritage Convention is used to promote the achievement and maintenance of peace and security between and within States Parties”.

29. “Recalling also the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity (2001), States Parties should therefore acknowledge the reality of cultural diversity within and around many World Heritage properties, and promote a culturally pluralistic approach in strategies for their conservation and management. States Parties should also recognise that peace and security, including freedom from conflict, discrimination and all forms of violence, require respect for human rights, effective systems of justice, inclusive political processes and appropriate systems of conflict prevention, resolution and post-conflict recovery”.

30. “States Parties have a critically important role to play in ensuring that the implementation of the World Heritage Convention, including the establishment of the World Heritage List and management of inscribed properties, are used to prevent conflicts between and within States Parties and to promote respect for cultural diversity and around World Heritage properties (…)”.

31. “During armed conflict, States Parties must refrain from any use of World Heritage properties and their immediate surroundings for purposes which are likely to expose them to destruction or damage. They must also refrain from any act of hostility directed against such properties (…)”.

32. “The inherent potential of World Heritage properties and of their conservation to contribute favourably to conflict resolution and re-establishment of peace and security should be acknowledged and harnessed (…)”

33. “During a conflict and in the post-conflict transition phase, World Heritage properties and their wider settings can make a significant contribution to recovery and socio-economic reconstruction (…)”.

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 42 COM 7
21. "[The World Heritage Committee] appeals to all Member States of UNESCO to cooperate in the fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural objects and illegal wildlife trade, as well as cultural heritage protection in general, including through the implementation of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 2199 (2015), 2253 (2015) and 2347 (2017) and of the 1970 Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import and Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 37 COM 7
2. "[The World Heritage Committee] expresses its utmost concern about the many conflicts which are affecting World Heritage properties and in particular the (…) cases where World Heritage properties are intentionally destroyed by parties involved in the conflict, and the people in charge of their protection targeted; (…) [and] seeks their support (…) for establishing property inventories and also requests the implementation of conservation measures for cultural properties threatened by armed conflict in other countries."
Decision of the World Heritage Committee 39 COM 7

4. "[The World Heritage Committee] urges all parties associated with conflicts to refrain from any action that would cause further damage to cultural heritage and to fulfil their obligations under international law by taking all possible measures to protect such heritage, in particular the safeguarding of World Heritage properties and the sites included in the Tentative List;

5. Also urges the States Parties to adopt measures for the evacuation of World Heritage properties being used for military purposes."

Decision of the World Heritage Committee 41 COM 7

13. "[The World Heritage Committee] launches an appeal to all Member States of UNESCO to cooperate in the fight against the illicit trafficking of cultural heritage objects (UNESCO 1970 Convention) and illegal wildlife trade, including through the implementation of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), and to pursue the implementation of the United Nations Security Council Resolutions regarding cultural heritage protection in conflict areas, especially Resolution 2199 and 2347."

Case Law

Synthesis based on relevant Committee decisions

The World Heritage Committee urges States Parties in conflict situations to safeguard damaged properties through minimal first aid interventions to prevent theft, further collapse and natural degradation, and to refrain from undertaking conservation and restoration work until the situation allows, for the development of comprehensive conservation strategies and actions that respond to international standards in full consultation with the World Heritage Centre and the Advisory Bodies (based on Case law further to Decisions concerning the State of Conservation).[46]


Annex I. Other Relevant Standard-setting Texts and Related Documents

The following is a non-exhaustive list of standard-setting texts and other documents which may contain policy relevant in the context of World Heritage but are not referred to within the draft Policy Compendium as they exceed the scope of the document.

UN

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) (1982) http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/texts/unclos/unclos_e.pdf
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (New York, 1992) https://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf
UN World Tourism Organisation. UNWTO General Assembly (Santiago, Chile, 27 September - 1 October 1999) Resolution A/RES/406(XIII). Global Code of Ethics for Tourism. http://cf.cdn.unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/gcetbrochureglobalcodeen.pdf
UN General Assembly Resolution 61/295. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People. (2007) http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/DRIPS_en.pdf
Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Sendai, Japan (March 18, 2015). The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/43291
United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/70/1). United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/21252030%20Agenda%20for%20Sustainable%20Development%20web.pdf
UN Special Rapporteur in the field of cultural rights. Annual Reports http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/CulturalRights/Pages/AnnualReports.aspx
Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) http://www.fao.org/home/en/
GIAHS – Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (FAO) http://www.fao.org/giahs/en/
The Sharm El-Sheikh Declaration on Nature and Culture - https://www.cbd.int/doc/c/8b76/d85e/c62f920c5fd8c4743e5193e1/cop-14-inf-46-en.pdf

 

UNESCO

UNESCO Conventions and Programmes
Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (1954) Protocol I (1954) Protocol II (1999) http://www.unesco.org/culture/laws/hague/html_eng/page1.shtml
Convention on the Means of Prohibiting and Preventing the Illicit Import, Export and Transfer of Ownership of Cultural Property (1970) http://www.unesco.org/culture/laws/1970/html_eng/page1.shtml
Convention on the Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage (2001) http://www.unesco.org/new/en/culture/themes/underwater-cultural-heritage/2001-convention/official-text/
Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage (2003) http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001325/132540e.pdf
Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions 2005 http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001429/142919e.pdf
Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme http://www.unesco.org/mab/

UNESCO POLICIES, STRATEGIES AND DECLARATIONS
UNESCO (202 EX/9; 202 EX/50). Policy on Engaging with Indigenous People.  http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0026/002627/262748e.pdf UNESCO 31st General Conference (Paris, 2 November 2001). UNESCO Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity.  http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001271/127162e.pdf
UNESCO General Conference (39 C/57, 24 October 2017) Strategy for the Reinforcement of UNESCO Action for the Protection of Culture and the Promotion of Cultural Pluralism in the Event of Armed Conflict. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002598/259805e.pdf
UNESCO Declaration concerning the Intentional Destruction of Cultural Heritage (2003) http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=17718&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html

 

World Heritage specific 
UNESCO World Heritage Committee. 1994. Nara Document on Authenticity. http://whc.unesco.org/archive/nara94.htm
UNESCO World Heritage Committee. 1996. Report of the Expert Meeting on Evaluation of General Principles and Criteria for Nominations of Natural World Heritage sites. (WHC-96/CONF.202/INF.9). http://whc.unesco.org/archive/1996/whc-96-conf202-inf9e.htm
UNESCO World Heritage Committee. 2001. Global Training Strategy for World Cultural and Natural Heritage, adopted by the World Heritage Committee at its 25th session (Annex XI of WHC-01/CONF.208/24)- Update of the Global Training Strategy (Doc WHC-09/33.COM/10B). http://whc.unesco.org/archive/2001/whc-01-conf208-24e.pdf
UNESCO World Heritage Committee. 2005. Vienna Memorandum on World Heritage and Contemporary Architecture – Managing the Historic Urban Landscape. (Doc WHC-05/15.GA/INF.7). http://whc.unesco.org/archive/2005/whc05-15ga-inf7e.pdf
UNESCO World Heritage Committee. 2010. Reflection on the Trends of the State of Conservation. (Doc WHC-10/34.COM/7C). http://whc.unesco.org/archive/2010/whc10-34com-7Ce.pdf
UNESCO World Heritage Committee. 2012. World Heritage Tourism Programme. (Doc WHC-12/36.COM/5E). http://whc.unesco.org/archive/2012/whc12-36com-5E-en.pdf
UNESCO World Heritage Committee. 2013. Revised Partnerships for Conservation (PACT) Initiative Strategy. (Doc WHC-13/37.COM/5D). http://whc.unesco.org/archive/2013/whc13-37com-5D-en.pdf
UNESCO, ICCROM, ICOMOS and IUCN. 2010. Managing Disaster Risks for World Heritage. Paris, UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/managing-disaster-risks/
UNESCO, ICCROM, ICOMOS and IUCN. 2011. Preparing World Heritage Nominations.(Second edition). Paris, UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/preparing-world-heritage-nominations/
UNESCO, ICCROM, ICOMOS and IUCN. 2012. Managing Natural World Heritage. Paris, UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/managing-natural-world-heritage/
UNESCO, ICCROM, ICOMOS and IUCN. 2013. Managing Cultural World Heritage. Paris, UNESCO World Heritage Centre. http://whc.unesco.org/en/managing-cultural-world-heritage/
The Bonn Declaration (2015) https://whc.unesco.org/en/sessions/39COM
The Istanbul Declaration (2016) https://whc.unesco.org/en/sessions/40COM/

ANNEX II. List of documents and texts

Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage

Policy for the integration of a sustainable development perspective into the processes of the World Heritage Convention (WHC-15/20.GA/INF.13)

WHC-07/16.GA/10 Policy document on the impact of Climate Change on World Heritage properties

OG Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention (WHC.17/01 - 12 July 2017)

WHC-11/35.COM/9B Presentation and adoption of the World Heritage strategy for capacity building

A Strategy to Assist States Parties to Implement Appropriate Management Responses

WHC-06/30.COM/INF.6A The World Heritage Centre's Natural Heritage Strategy

Annex III. Revised draft recommendation concerning the protection, at national level of the cutural and natural heritage

WHC-02/CONF.202/5 The Budapest Declaration on World Heritage

WHC-07/31.COM/7.2 Issues related to the state of conservation of World Heritage properties: Strategy for Reducing Risks from Disasters at World Heritage properties

Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape (HUL)

CC-79/CONF.003/11 Principles and criteria for inclusion of properties on World Heritage List

Working Group on the Representativity of the World Heritage List

WHC-12/36.COM/5E World Heritage Tourism Programme

WHC-01/CONF.208/14 Progress Report on the Global Training Strategy

Policy document on the impacts of climate change on World Heritage Properties (2008)

WHC-11/18.GA/11 Future of the World Heritage Convention

WHC-99/CONF.206/7 Summary Record of the 12th General Assembly of States Parties

WHC.07/16.GA/9 Progress in the implementation of the Global strategy for a representative, balanced and credible World Heritage List

Decision 22COM IX1 Follow-up to the Work of the Consultative Body of the World Heritage Committee

Decision 39COM 7 State of Conservation of World Heritage Properties

Decision 36COM 7C Reflection on the Trends of the State of Conservation

Decision 38COM 7 State of conservation of World Heritage properties

Decision 34COM 5F.2 Report on the World Heritage Thematic Programmes

Decision 41COM 5C World Heritage Convention and Sustainable Development

Decision 03COM XI.35 Amendments to the criteria for the inclusion of cultural and natural properties in the World Heritage List and Guidelines for the evaluation of Nominations to the World Heritage List by ICOMOS and IUCN

Decision 19COM X Balanced Representation of Natural and Cultural Heritage on the World Heritage List

Decision 41COM 7 State of Conservation of the Properties Inscribed on the World Heritage List

Decision 07EXTCOM 4A Progress report on revised Operational Guidelines

Decision 40COM 7 State of Conservation of World Heritage Properties

Decision 04COM VI.18-20 Consideration of item 7 of the agenda : The revised text of the Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention

Decision 42COM 7 State of Conservation of World Heritage Properties

Decision 1EXTGA 3 Revision of the rules of procedure of the General Assembly

Decision 19GA 8 Determination of the amount of the contributions to the World Heritage Fund in accordance with the provisions of Article 16 of the World Heritage Convention

Decision 27COM 11.3 Examination of the World Heritage Fund and Approval of the Related Budget for 2004/2005

Decision 41COM 14 Report on the execution of the budget for the biennium 2016-2017 and preparation of the budget for the biennium 2018-2019

Decision 42COM 14 Presentation of the final accounts of the World Heritage Fund for 2016-2017, implementation of the World Heritage Fund under the biennium 2018-2019 and follow-up to Decision 41 COM 14

Decision 23COM XIIIA.2-12 Revision of Section I of the Operational Guidelines

Decision 35COM 12B Working methods of statutory organs of the Convention

Decision 42COM 5A Report of the World Heritage Centre on its activities and the implementation of the World Heritage Committee’s decisions

Decision 30COM 9 Evaluation of Outstanding Universal Value

Decision 32COM 9 Discussion on Outstanding Universal Value

Decision 42COM 8 Nominations - General Discussion

Decision 35COM 12E Global state of conservation challenges of World Heritage properties

Decision 35COM 8B.46 Natural Properties - Examination of minor boundary modifications - Selous Game Reserve (United Republic of Tanzania)

Decision 27COM 14 Evaluation of the Cairns Decision

Decision 41COM 9A Progress Report on the Reflection Concerning the Upstream Processes

Decision 41COM 8A Tentative Lists Submitted by States Parties as of 15 April 2017, in Conformity with the Operational Guidelines

Decision 41COM 9B Progress Report on the Reflection on Processes for Mixed Nominations

Decision 29COM 18A Working Methods of the World Heritage Committee

Decision 41COM 8B.50 Large Complex Serial Transnational Nominations and the Need for Nomination Strategies

Decision 29COM 5D Report of the World Heritage Centre on its Activities and on the Implementation of the Decisions of the World Heritage Committee

Decision 31COM 5.2 Reinforced monitoring mechanism proposed by the Director-General

Decision 34COM 7C Reflection on the trends of the state of conservation

Decision 37COM 7 Emerging trends and general issues

Decision 29COM 7B.a Threats to World Heritage Properties

Decision 31COM 13A Evaluation of the results of the implementation of the Committee’s strategic objectives

Decision 42COM 5B Reports of the Advisory Bodies

Decision 03COM XII.46 Consideration of Nominations to the World Heritage List

Decision 16GA 10 Policy document on the impacts of Climate Change on World Heritage properties

Decision 37COM 8B.41 Wieliczka and Bochnia Royal Salt Mines (Poland)

Decision 38COM 8B.34 Caves of Maresha and Bet Guvrin in the Judean Lowlands as a Microcosm of the Land of the Caves (Israel)

Decision 32COM 8B.28 Examination of nomination of natural, mixed and cultural proprerties to the World Heritage List - Kalka Shimla Railway, Extension of Mountain Railways of India (INDIA)

Decision 33COM 8B.32 Cultural properties - Properties deferred or referred back by previous sessions of the World Heritage Committee - The Causses and the Cévennes (France)

Decision 34COM 8B.11 Cultural Properties - Konso Cultural Landscape (Ethiopia)

Decision 34COM 8B.20 Cultural Properties - Bikini Atoll Nuclear Test Site (Marshall Islands)

Decision 34COM 8B.3 Natural Properties - Tajik National Park (Mountains of the Pamirs) (Tajikistan)

Decision 34COM 8B.7 Natural Properties-Dinosaur Ichnites of the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal /Spain)

Decision 35COM 8B.16 Mixed Properties - Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park (Jamaica)

Decision 36COM 8B.35 Cultural Properties - Russian Kremlins (Russian Federation)

Decision 37COM 8B.11 Great Himalayan National Park

Decision 37COM 8B.17 Bijagós Archipelago – Motom Moranghajogo (Guinea Bissau)

Decision 37COM 8B.21 Isandra Zoma (Madagascar)

Decision 38COM 8B.17 Tongo-Tangzuk Tallensi Cultural Landscape, Ghana

Decision 38COM 8B.18 Mount Mulanje Cultural Landscape (Malawi)

Decision 38COM 8B.22 Khor Dubai (Dubai Creek) (United Arab Emirates)

Decision 31COM 8B.28 Nomination of natural, mixed and cultural properties to the world heritage list - Batanes Cultural Landscapes

Decision 31COM 8B.33 Nomination of natural, mixed and cultural properties to the world heritage list - Bregenzerwald Cultural Landscape

Decision 32COM 7B.70 Group of Monuments at Hampi (India) (C 241)

Decision 33COM 7B.116 Cultural Landscape of Sintra (Portugal) (C 723)

Decision 34COM 7A.27 Historical Monuments of Mtskheta (Georgia) (C 708)

Decision 35COM 7B.131 Lines and Geoglyphs of Nasca and Pampas de Jumana (Peru) (C 700)

Decision 36COM 7B.74 Mont-Saint-Michel and its Bay (France) (C 80 bis)

Decision 40COM 7B.50 Old City of Dubrovnik (Croatia) (C 95bis)

Decision 41COM 7A.42 Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Palestine) (C 1433)

Decision 36COM 7B.8 Great Barrier Reef (Australia) (N 154)

Decision 41COM 7B.47 Archaeological Areas of Pompei, Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata (Italy) (C 829)

Decision 40COM 8B.9 Examination of nominations of natural properties to the World Heritage List

Decision 41COM 8B.3 W-Arly-Pendjari Complex (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger)

Decision 41COM 8B.7 Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe (Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Italy, Germany, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain, Ukraine)

Decision 41COM 8B.21 Venetian Works of Defence between the 16th and 17th Centuries: Stato da Terra – Western Stato da Mar (Croatia, Italy, Montenegro)

Decision 40COM 8B.6 Examination of nominations of natural properties to the World Heritage List

Decision 41COM 8B.5 Bhitarkanika Conservation Area (India)

Decision 41COM 8B.9 Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley: originary habitat of Mesoamerica (Mexico)

Decision 41COM 8B.11 Asmara: a Modernist City of Africa (Eritrea)

Decision 41COM 8B.31 Gelati Monastery (Georgia)

Decision 38COM 8B.37 Bursa and Cumalıkızık: the Birth of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Decision 39COM 8B.25 Speicherstadt and Kontorhaus District with Chilehaus, Germany

Decision 39COM 8B.33 The Forth Bridge, United Kingdom

Decision 41COM 8B.26 Assumption Cathedral and Monastery of the town-island of Sviyazhsk (Russian Federation)

Decision 41COM 8B.27 Talayotic Minorca (Spain)

Decision 41COM 8B.28 Aphrodisias (Turkey)

Decision 41COM 8B.33 Bauhaus and its Sites in Weimar, Dessau and Bernau (Germany)

Decision 41COM 8B.38 Mount Wuyi (China)

Decision 37COM 7B.11 Macquarie Island (Australia) (N 629 rev)

Decision 38COM 7B.92 Lake Malawi National Park (Malawi) (N 289)

Decision 40COM 7B.69 Iguazu National Park (Argentina) (N 303)

Decision 40COM 7B.70 Iguaçu National Park (Brazil) (N 355)

Decision 41COM 7A.15 Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Niger) (N 573)

Decision 28COM 15B.71 Acropolis, Athens

Decision 28COM 15B.74 Historic Centre of Riga (Latvia)

Decision 27COM 7B.67 Acropolis, Athens (Greece)

Decision 32COM 7B.72 Meidan Emam, Esfahan (Islamic Republic of Iran) (C 115)

Decision 33COM 7B.113 City of Valletta (Malta) (C 131)

Decision 35COM 7B.96 Archaeological Areas of Pompei, Herculaneum and Torre Annunziata (Italy) (C 829)

Decision 31COM 7B.89 Historic Areas of Istanbul (Turkey)

Decision 31COM 7B.90 Tower of London (United Kingdom)

Decision 31COM 7B.94 Historic Centre of Prague (Czech Republic)

Decision 37COM 7B.96 Colonial City of Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) (C 526)

Decision 38COM 7B.42 Colonial City of Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic) (C 526)

Decision 41COM 7B.23 Socotra Archipelago (Yemen) (N 1263)

Decision 41COM 7B.43 Ancient City of Nessebar (Bulgaria) (C 217)

Decision 38COM 7B.62 Banc d’Arguin National Park (Mauritania) (N 506)

Decision 38COM 7B.69 Chitwan National Park (Nepal) (N 284)

Decision 39COM 7B.15 Chitwan National Park (Nepal) (N 284)

Decision 40COM 7B.105 Omnibus Decision

Decision 41COM 7B.42 Historic Centre of Vienna (Austria) (C 1033)

Decision 36COM 7B.61 Mahabodhi Temple Complex at Bodh Gaya (India) (C1056 rev)

Decision 41COM 7B.41 Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg (Austria) (C 784)

Decision 32COM 7B.84 Belfries of Belgium and France (Belgium and France) (C 943 and 943 bis)

Decision 33COM 7B.67 Historic Centre of Macao (China) (C 1110)

Decision 36COM 7B.88 Cathedral, Alcázar and Archivo de Indias in Seville (Spain) (C 383 rev)

Decision 37COM 7B.71 Palace and Gardens of Schönbrunn (Austria) (C 786) and Historic Centre of Vienna (Austria) (C 1033)

Decision 40COM 7B.49 Historic Centre of Vienna (Austria) (C 1033)

Decision 41COM 7B.40 Historic Centres of Berat and Gjirokastra (Albania) (C 569bis)

Decision 41COM 7B.53 Kiev: Saint-Sophia Cathedral and Related Monastic Buildings, Kiev-Pechersk Lavra (Ukraine) (C 527bis)

Decision 32COM 7B.122 Maya site of Copan (Honduras) (C 129)

Decision 36COM 7B.80 Centennial Hall in Wroclaw (Poland) (C 1165)

Decision 36COM 7B.100 Maya Site of Copan (Honduras) (C 129)

Decision 37COM 7B.65 Kathmandu Valley (Nepal) (C 121)

Decision 39COM 7B.91 Maya Site of Copan (Honduras) (C 129)

Decision 40COM 7B.55 Auschwitz Birkenau German Nazi Concentration and Extermination Camp (1940-1945) (Poland) (C 31)

Decision 41COM 7B.31 Chitwan National Park (Nepal) (N 284)

Decision 41COM 7B.59 Churches of Chiloe (Chile) (C 971)

Decision 41COM 7B.69 Lamu Old Town (Kenya) (C 1055)

Decision 37COM 7B.102 Historic Centre of Lima (Peru) (C 500bis)

Decision 38COM 7B.45 Historic Centre of Puebla (Mexico) (C 416)

Decision 38COM 7B.77 Western Caucasus (Russian Federation) (N 900)

Decision 40COM 7B.91 Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park (Viet Nam) (N 951bis)

Decision 42COM 7B.26 Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor (Montenegro) (C 125ter)

Decision 32COM 7B.118 Heart of Neolithic Orkney (United Kingdom) (C 514)

Decision 34COM 7B.83 Saint-Michel and its Bay (France) (C 80bis)

Decision 41COM 8B.19 Sacred Island of Okinoshima and Associated Sites in the Munakata Region (Japan)

Decision 41COM 7B.45 Upper Middle Rhine Valley (Germany) (C 1066)

Decision 37COM 7B.79 Alto Douro Wine Region (Portugal) (C 1046)

Decision 21BUR IVB.33 Canaima National Park (Venezuela)

Decision 25BUR V.126-127 Royal Chitwan National Park (Nepal)

Decision 38COM 7B.59 Ecosystem and Relict Cultural Landscape of Lopé-Okanda (Gabon) (C/N 1147rev)

Decision 31COM 7B.4 State of conservation of World Heritage Properties - Mosi-oa-Tunya / Victoria Falls

Decision 31COM 7B.31 Lake Baikal (Russian Federation)

Decision 33COM 7B.28 Lake Baikal (Russian Federation) (N 754)

Decision 35COM 7B.23 Lake Baikal (Russian Federation) (N 754)

Decision 36COM 7B.22 Lake Baikal (Russian Federation) (N 754)

Decision 41COM 7B.25 The Sundarbans (Bangladesh) (N 798)

Decision 37COM 7B.26 Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany (Slovakia / Germany / Ukraine) (N 1133bis)

Decision 38COM 7A.45 Aïr and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Niger) (N 573)

Decision 41COM 7B.1 Bialowieza Forest (Belarus / Poland) (N 33ter)

Decision 41COM 7A.19 East Rennell (Solomon Islands) (N 854)

Decision 41COM 7B.4 Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany (Germany, Slovakia, Ukraine) (N 1133bis)

Decision 38COM 7B.84 Coiba National Park and its Special Zone of Marine Protection (Panama) (N 1138rev)

Decision 40COM 7B.85 Banc d’Arguin National Park (Mauritania) (N 506)

Decision 41COM 7B.15 Islands and Protected Areas of the Gulf of California (Mexico) (N 1182ter)

Decision 41COM 7B.17 Coiba National Park and its Special Zone of Marine Protection (Panama) (N 1138rev)

Decision 35COM 7B.22 Lagoons of New Caledonia: Reef Diversity and Associated Ecosystems (France) (N 1115)

Decision 37COM 7B.8 Banc d’Arguin National Park (Mauritania) (N 506)

Decision 40COM 7B.104 Grand Canyon National Park (United States of America) (N 75)

Decision 38COM 7B.80 Giant’s Causeway and Causeway Coast (United-Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) (N 369)

Decision 40COM 7B.71 Cerrado Protected areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros and Emas National Parks (Brazil) (N 1035)

Decision 36COM 7B.1 Dja Wildlife Reserve (Cameroon) (N 407)

Decision 36COM 7A.34 Chan Chan Archaeological Zone (Peru) (C 366)

Decision 37COM 7A.23 Abu Mena (Egypt) (C 90)

Decision 37COM 7B.74 Prehistoric Sites and Decorated Caves of the Vézère Valley (France) (C 85)

Decision 38COM 7A.1 Abu Mena (Egypt) (C 90)

Decision 40COM 7A.9 Abu Mena (Egypt) (C 90)

Decision 40COM 7A.14 Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem (Palestine) (C 1433)

Decision 41COM 7A.27 Coro and its Port (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of) (C 658)

Decision 41COM 7A.32 Abu Mena (Egypt) (C 90)

Decision 32COM 7B.41 Tasmanian Wilderness (Australia) (C/N 181 bis)

Decision 36COM 7B.25 Golden Mountains of Altai (Russian Federation) (N 768rev)

Decision 40COM 7B.79 Dja Wildlife Reserve (Cameroon) (N 407)

Decision 40COM 7B.88 Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area (India) (N 1406rev)

Decision 38COM 7B.61 Ngorongoro Conservation Area (Tanzania, United Republic of) (C/N 39bis)

Decision 39COM 7B.52 Petra (Jordan) (C 326)

Decision 39COM 7B.61 Cultural Landscape of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces (China) (C 1111)

Decision 39COM 7B.66 Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy (Indonesia) (C 1194rev)

Decision 40COM 7A.37 Garamba National Park (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (N 136)

Decision 40COM 7B.64 Cliff of Bandiagara (Land of the Dogons) (Mali) (C/N 516)

Decision 40COM 7B.86 Socotra Archipelago (Yemen) (N 1263)

Decision 41COM 7B.19 Sangha Trinational (Cameron / Central African Republic / Congo) (N 1380rev)

Decision 41COM 7B.29 Lorentz National Park (Indonesia) (N 955)

Decision 41COM 7B.35 Blue and John Crow Mountains (Jamaica) (C/N 1356rev)

Decision 41COM 7B.79 Baptism Site “Bethany Beyond the Jordan” (Al-Maghtas) (Jordan) (C 1446)

Decision 38COM 7B.53 Osun-Osogbo Sacred Groove (Nigeria) (C 1118)

Decision 40COM 7B.89 Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) (N 120)

Decision 41COM 7B.96 Fort and Shalamar Gardens in Lahore (Pakistan) (C 171)

Decision 38COM 7B.32 Cultural and Historic Ensemble of the Solovetsky Islands (Russian Federation) (C 632)

Decision 39COM 7A.24 Abu Mena (Egypt) (C 90)

Decision 31COM 7B.29 Durmitor National Park (Montenegro)

Decision 37COM 7B.28 Giant Causeway and Causeway Coast (United-Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland) (N 369)

Decision 40COM 7B.74 Galápagos Islands (Ecuador) (N 1bis)

Decision 41COM 7B.32 Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex (Thailand) (N 590rev)

Decision 33COM 7B.11 Banc d'Arguin National Park (Mauritania) (N 506)

Decision 35COM 7B.9 Purnululu National Park (Australia) (N 1094)

Decision 38COM 7B.14 Cultural Landscape of Bali Province: the Subak System as a Manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana Philosophy (Indonesia) (C 1194rev)

Decision 33COM 7B.7 Rwenzori Mountains National Park (Uganda) (N 684)

Decision 33COM 7B.23 Ilulissat Icefjord (Denmark) (N 1149)

Decision 34COM 7B.14 Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (Indonesia) (N 1167)

Decision 36COM 7B.4 Rwenzori Mountains National Park (Uganda) (N 684)

Decision 37COM 7B.14 East Rennell (Solomon Island) (N 854)

Decision 38COM 7A.29 East Rennell (Solomon Islands) (N 854)

Decision 31COM 7B.8 State of conservation of World Heritage Properties - Cape Floral Region Protected Areas

Decision 31COM 7B.45 Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Peru)

Decision 32COM 7B.44 Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Peru) (C/N 274)

Decision 34COM 7A.16 Ruins of Kilwa Kisiwani and Ruins of Songo Mnara (United Republic of Tanzania) (C 144)

Decision 34COM 7B.11 Sichuan Giant Panda Sanctuaries - Wolong, Mt Siguniang and Jiajin Mountains (China) (N 1213)

Decision 34COM 7B.42 Historic Sanctuary of Machu Picchu (Peru) (C/N 274)

Decision 35COM 7B.32 Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (Mexico) (N 1290)

Decision 37COM 7B.3 Mount Kenya National Park/ Natural Forest (Kenya) (N 800)

Decision 37COM 7B.20 Pitons, cirques and remparts of Reunion Island (France) (N 1317)

Decision 37COM 7B.37 Historic Town of Grand-Bassam (Côte d'Ivoire) (C 1322rev)

Decision 40COM 7B.11 Lower Valley of the Omo (Ethiopia) (C 17)

Decision 35COM 7B.17 Tubbataha Reef Natural Park (Philippines) (N 653bis)

Decision 36COM 7B.17 Dong Phayayen-Khao Yai Forest Complex (Thailand) (N 590)

Decision 36COM 7B.78 Curonian Spit (Lithuania/Russian Federation) (C 994)

Decision 37COM 7B.19 Gulf of Porto: Calanche of Piana, Gulf of Girolata, Scandola Reserve (France) (N 258)

Decision 38COM 7B.27 Venice and its lagoon (Italy) (C 394)

Decision 40COM 7B.81 Lake Malawi National Park (Malawi) (N 289)

Decision 31COM 7B.24 State of conservation of World Heritage Properties - Isole Eolie (Aeolian Islands)

Decision 40COM 7B.52 Venice and its lagoon (Italy) (C 394)

Decision 33COM 7B.29 Western Caucasus (Russian Federation) (N 900)

Decision 36COM 7B.45 Aapravasi Ghat (Mauritius) (C 1227)

Decision 38COM 7A.37 Virunga National Park (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (N 63)

Decision 40COM 7A.5 Coro and its Port (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of) (C 658)

Decision 36COM 7B.64 Vat Phou and Associated Ancient Settlements within the Champasak Cultural Landscape (Lao People’s Democratic Republic) (C 481)

Decision 33COM 7B.131 City of Bath (United Kingdom) (C 428)

Decision 35COM 7B.77 Archaeological Ruins at Moenjodaro (Pakistan) (C 138)

Decision 31COM 7B.84 Borobudur Temple Compounds (Indonesia)

Decision 40COM 7B.30 Ancient Building Complex in the Wudang Mountains (China) (C 705)

Decision 34COM 7B.1 Dja Wildlife Reserve (Cameroon) (N 407)

Decision 39COM 7A.19 Los Katios National Park (Colombia) (N 711)

Decision 37COM 7B.30 Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves / La Amistad National Park (Costa Rica / Panama) (N 205bis)

Decision 39COM 7B.28 Talamanca Range-La Amistad Reserves / La Amistad National Park (Costa Rica/Panama) (N 205bis)

Decision 35COM 7B.34 Manu National Park (Peru) (N 402)

Decision 39COM 7A.36 General Decision on the World Heritage properties of the Syrian Arab Republic

Decision 40COM 7A.22 General Decision on the World Heritage properties of the Syrian Arab Republic

Decision 41COM 7A.46 Ancient City of Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic) (C 20bis)

Decision 41COM 7A.50 General Decision on the World Heritage properties of the Syrian Arab Republic

19/09/2019

 

 

 



[1] See for example Decisions 37COM 8B.41, 38COM 8B.34.

[2] See for example Decisions 32COM 8B.28, 33COM 8B.32, 34COM 8B.11, 34COM 8B.20.

[3] See for example Decisions 34COM 8B.3, 34COM 8B.7, 35COM 8B.16, 36COM 8B.35, 37COM 8B.11, 37COM 8B.17, 37COM 8B.21, 38COM 8B.17, 38COM 8B.18, 38COM 8B.22.

[4] See for example Decisions 31COM 8B.28, 31COM 8B.33.

[5] See for example Decisions 32COM 7B.70, 33COM 7B.116, 34COM 7A.27, 35COM 7B.131, 36COM 7B.74, 40COM 7B.50, 41COM 7A.42.

[6] See for example Decisions 34COM 7A.27, 36COM 7B.8, 36COM 7B.74, 41COM 7B.47.

[7] See for example Decisions 40COM 8B.9, 41COM 8B.3, 41COM 8B.7, 41COM 8B.21.

[8] See for example Decisions 40COM 8B.6, 41COM 8B.3, 41COM 8B.5, 41COM 8B.9, 41COM 8B.11, 41COM 8B.31.

[9] See for example Decisions 38COM 8B.37, 39COM 8B.25, 39COM 8B.33, 41COM 8B.26, 41COM 8B.27, 41COM 8B.28, 41COM 8B.31, 41COM 8B.33, 41COM 8B.38.

[10] See for example Decisions 37COM 7B.11, 38COM 7B.92, 40COM 7B.69, 40COM 7B.70, 41COM 7A.15.

[11] See for example Decisions 28COM 15B.71, 28COM 15B.74, 27COM 7B.67, 32COM 7B.72, 33COM 7B.113, 35COM 7B.96, 31COM 7B.89, 31COM 7B.90, 31COM 7B.94, 37COM 7B.96, 38COM 7B.42, 41COM 7B.23, 41COM 7B.43.

[12] See for example Decisions 36COM 7B.8, 38COM 7B.62, 38COM 7B.69, 39COM 7B.15, 40COM 7B.105, 41COM 7B.42.

[13] See for example Decisions 34COM 7A.27, 36COM 7B.61, 41COM 7B.41.

[14] See for example Decisions 32COM 7B.72, 32COM 7B.84, 33COM 7B.67, 36COM 7B.88, 37COM 7B.71, 40COM 7B.49, 41COM 7, 41COM 7B.40, 41COM 7B.42, 41COM 7B.53.

[15] See for example Decisions 32COM 7B.122, 36COM 7B.80, 36COM 7B.100, 37COM 7B.65, 38COM 7B.62, 39COM 7B.91, 40COM 7B.55, 41COM 7B.31, 41COM 7B.59, 41COM 7B.69.

[16] See for example Decisions 37COM 7B.102, 38COM 7B.45, 38COM 7B.77, 40COM 7B.91, 42COM 7B.26.

[17] See for example Decisions 32COM 7B.118, 34COM 7B.83, 36COM 7B.74, 41COM 8B.19, 41COM 7B.45.

[18] See for example Decisions 37COM 7B.79, 21BUR IVB.33, 25BUR V.126-127, 38COM 7B.59.

[19] See for example Decisions 31COM 7B.4, 31COM 7B.31, 33COM 7B.28, 35COM 7B.23, 36COM 7B.22, 41COM 7B.25.

[20] See for example Decisions 37COM 7B.26, 38COM 7A.45, 41COM 7B.1, 41COM 7A.19, 41COM 7B.4.

[21] See for example Decisions 38COM 7B.62, 38COM 7B.84, 40COM 7B.85, 41COM 7B.15, 41COM 7B.17.

[22] See for example Decisions 35COM 7B.22, 37COM 7B.8, 40COM 7B.104, 41COM 7A.19.

[23] See for example Decisions 38COM 7B.80, 38COM 7B.92, 40COM 7B.71, 40COM 7B.85.

[24] See for example Decisions 35COM 7B.22, 36COM 7B.1, 38COM 7B.92.

[25] See for example Decisions 36COM 7A.34, 37COM 7A.23, 37COM 7B.74, 38COM 7A.1, 40COM 7A.9, 40COM 7A.14, 41COM 7A.27, 41COM 7A.32.

[26] See for example Decisions 32COM 7B.41, 36COM 7B.25, 40COM 7B.79, 40COM 7B.88.

[27] See for example Decisions 38COM 7B.61, 39COM 7B.52, 39COM 7B.61, 39COM 7B.66, 40COM 7A.37, 40COM 7B.64, 40COM 7B.86, 41COM 7A.19, 41COM 7B.19, 41COM 7B.29, 41COM 7B.35, 41COM 7B.79.

[28] See for example Decisions 38COM 7B.53, 40COM 7B.89, 41COM 7B.96.

[29] See for example Decisions 38COM 7A.1, 38COM 7B.32, 39COM 7A.24, 41COM 7A.32.

[30] See for example Decisions 31COM 7B.29, 37COM 7B.28, 40COM 7B.74, 41COM 7B.32.

[31] See for example Decisions 33COM 7B.11, 38COM 7A.45, 40COM 7A.37.

[32] See for example Decisions 32COM 7B.41, 35COM 7B.9, 38COM 7B.14, 40COM 7B.86.

[33] See for example Decisions 33COM 7B.7, 33COM 7B.11, 33COM 7B.23, 34COM 7B.14, 35COM 7B.22, 36COM 7B.4, 37COM 7B.14, 38COM 7A.29.

[34] See for example Decisions 31COM 7B.8, 31COM 7B.45, 32COM 7B.44, 34COM 7A.16, 34COM 7B.11, 34COM 7B.42, 35COM 7B.32, 36COM 7C, 37COM 7B.3, 37COM 7B.20, 37COM 7B.37, 40COM 7B.11.

[35] See for example Decisions 35COM 7B.17, 36COM 7B.17, 36COM 7B.78, 37COM 7B.19, 38COM 7B.27, 38COM 7B.92, 39COM 7B.61, 40COM 7B.50, 40COM 7B.74, 40COM 7B.81.

[36] See for example Decisions 31COM 7B.24, 38COM 7B.27, 40COM 7B.50, 40COM 7B.52.

[37] See for example Decisions 33COM 7B.29, 36COM 7B.17, 36COM 7B.45, 36COM 7B.61, 38COM 7A.37.

[38] See for example Decisions 40COM 7A.5, 41COM 7A.27.

[39] See for example Decisions 36COM 7B.17, 36COM 7B.61, 36COM 7B.64.

[40] See for example Decisions 33COM 7B.131, 35COM 7B.77, 31COM 7B.84, 40COM 7B.30.

[41] See for example Decisions 36COM 7B.25.

[42] See for example Decisions 32COM 7B.41, 36COM 7B.25, 40COM 7B.79.

[43] See for example Decisions 34COM 7B.1, 39COM 7A.19, 40COM 7B.88.

[44] See for example Decisions 37COM 7B.30, 39COM 7B.28.

[45] See for example Decisions 35COM 7B.34.

[46] See for example Decisions 39COM 7A.36, 40COM 7A.22, 41COM 7A.46, 41COM 7A.50.