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“Binagadi" 4th Period Fauna and Flora Deposit is located at 40° 15' 50~ northem latitude and 49° 45' 55" eastem longitude, on the territory of Binagadi District of Baku City, the capital of Azerbaijan Republic, Absheron Peninsula. This ancient flora and fauna deposit is protected by the State as a monument of a nature of the special significance pursuant to the Decree of the Govemment of Azerbaijan Republic No. 167 of March 16, 1982. The Binagadi occurrence gives us cleor idea about fauna and flora of Pliocene. Rich vegetation and diversity of insects, related to water are evidence that in ancient bmes here was a source of fresh water. At the bottom an ancient shriveled lake have been discovered a plenty remains of animals covered by thick layer of a petroleum. In the result of studies have been discovered about 50 thousand bones of various animals here. So, 40 specimen of mammals, 120 species of birds, 2 species of repbles and one specimen of amphibians from vertebrates heve been identified, as well as 107 species of insects and 22 species of vegetation relics have been discovered. Binagadi fauna and flora deposit is richer by number of animal relics than the 4th Period fauna deposit discovered in Califomian Rancho-Lle-Brlant Pitch. This ancient fauna and flora deposit determines not only the history of Transcaucasus, but even plays great role in soluton of problems concerning paleofauna of entire Caucasus, Middie Asia, European part of NIS countries as well.